Skip to main content

Full text of "The American nations; or, outlines of their general history, ancient and modern, including: the whole history of the earth and mankind in the western hemisphere; the philosophy of American history; the annals, traditions, civilization, lanuguages, &c., of all the American nations, tribes, empires, and states"

See other formats





Outlines of A National History; 




yx* 4* 
Of this wide Western Hemisphera^\) 

herejk -L 

^SSv C\* 

^*^^>-^ * O*illf ts 

; T^rsss- - -- -^ 

Let us retrace the history ; TT J **/y j ^/ 

Of all the Nations dwelling herejj^ -*-* * "* ^ * f/* 

Let us recall the memory 











Published quarterly at Five Dollars in 
advance for Six Numbers or Volumes, simi 
lar to this, of nearly 300 pages each sep 
arate Number sold for one Dollar, or more 
when they will contain maps and illustra 

A list of Agents will be given hereafter. 
At present the principal Booksellers may 
act as such. 

The Names ot the Subscribers will be 
printed in a subsequent Number. 

It is contemplated to conclude these an 
nals and their illustrations in 12 Numbers 
or Volumes. Therefore the whole cost to 
subscribers will only be f 10, for which a 
complete American Historical Library will 
be obtained. 

By remitting $5 to the author, six Vol 
umes are secured whatever be their future 
price, and will be sent by mail: a similar 
sum will be due when the 7th number is 
issued. Those who may prefer to pay $10 
at once, will be deemed Patrons of the 

Whoever subscribes and pays for 5 sets, 
is entitled to a 6th gratis. Agents will be 
allowed 20 per cent commission. 

The price of this Number by itself is One 
Dollar, or Five Dollars for Six copies. 

It contains an introduction, general view, 
account of materials and cataclysms, the 
Linapi and Haytian annals, with the Hay- 
tian Language, notes, tables, &c. 







With Maps, Plates, Vines, and Plans of Monuments, 
Tables, Notes, and Illustrations. 


Professor of Historical and Natural Sciences, 
Member of many Learned Societies in Paris, Bor 
deaux, Bruxels, Bonn, Vienna, Zurich, Naples, &c, 
in Europe. Philadelphia, New York. Cincinnati, 
Lexington, Nashville, &c., in America. The Ameri 
can Antiquarian Society, &c. 


" All we have hitherto learnt respecting the ancient state of the 
" Natives of the Ntw Continent is nothing in comparison to the 
" light that will be one day thrown on this subjeet, if we succeed in 
* bringing together the materials now scattered over both worlds, 
"that have survived the ages of ignorance and barbarism." Hum- 




ENTERED according to act of Congress, 
in the year 1836, by C. S. RAFINESQUE, in 
the Clerk s office of the District Court for 
the Eastern District of the State of Penn 




To you I dedicate this work, result of long and 
weary researches. This homage is due to the public 
approbation you gave to ray first analogous labor, ray 
Memoirs or Series of Researches on the Origiu of 
Mankind : which I endeavored to trace philologically 
to the centre of Asia. I had announced long ago this 
history of the Americans, the inhabitants of a whole 
hemisphere. I had quoted it in my other works. 
I now offer the outlines of it under your auspices. 

You have furnished the example of cultivating 
along with Geography, all the auxiliary and connected 
sciences, which may enlighten it : particularly the 
ancient and modern Ethnography, with Philology one 
of its bases. You will see that I have followed this 
practice in availing myself of all the sciences to en 
lighten the history of mankind, the Ethnography and 
annals of nations : above all Philology with Chrono 
logy and Geography. 

The origins and annals of the black nations, and 
of the American nations, were two subjects quite ob 
scure and neglected, or the least known, of the history 
of mankind. Nobody has undertaken, as yet, the 
history of the Negro nations: a labor so difficult and 
luckless as to be despised. 

My memoirs on this despised race, may perhaps 
furnish the bases of such history. All the histories 
of America are mere fragments or dreams. I have 
perceived the possibility and necessity to write a ge 
neral and faithful history of this hemisphere. I now 
offer the results of this weary labor. 


You will perceive in it many things which have 
already been said; since it is impossible to write his 
tory without repetitions; but my plan, the whole point 
of view, and the results which I draw, are my own. 
You will also find many things which were never told 
or were very improperly presented. I shall destroy 
many errors, hypotheses and conjectures : since in 
them alone often consist our works upon America. 

But I shall not say every thing; where so much 
is to be related, all cannot be told : and I shall be 
compelled to neglect several minute details. I wish 
to trace faithful outlines, rather than write a bulky 
work, like our pretending universal histories, which 
however, dwell only upon one-third of the globe or 
even less. 

1 dislike long quotations, and shall seldom em 
ploy them : I quote only when authorities are required 
to render an opinion more forcible. Every where else 
I merely give the abridgement of my great historical 
materials in manuscript, which are arranged by ex 
tracts of authorities, and where they may be sought 
for in case of need. 

Accept, Gentlemen, the respectful homage of 


October 22d, 1833. $ 


IN venturing to open a new path in his 
torical researches on the earth and man 
kind, it is incumbent on the bold pioneer 
to state his views, or at least Ho furnish 
adequate reasons for deviating so far from 
the usual track. 

While every science and branch of 
knowledge is improving, and has, with rapid 
strides, made continual advances for fifty 
years past or more, is the noble muse of 
history to be kept stationary forever, by 
compilers and classical plodders ? and for 
America by the foes of the ancient and 
modern nations of a whole hemisphere? 
No. ... it is time to improve history as 
every thing else ; to seek the truth and 
tell it. 

As the human mind is yet more swayed 
by authorities, than genius or wisdom; 
high authorities will be given instead of 
long explanations. Ever since the time of 
Juvenal, it has been an ungrateful task to 
write historical truth : men often prefer to 
be amused, deceived, or helped in strife ; 
than to be instructed, or receive sketches 
of former times. Yet there is always a 
secret delight in viewing faithful pictures 
of ages past, of our ancestors on earth, and 
our predecessors on the soil of our homes, or 
where we spend the scenes of our own lives. 

The worthies who have been taken for mo 
dels or guides in this arduous undertaking, 
are Solomon, Moses, Job, St. Paul, St. Aug 
ustine, Plato, Niebuhr, Humboldt, Malcolm, 


Gebelin, D Olivet, Bryant, Adelung, Drum- 
mond, Pritchard, Champollion, Klaproth, 
Jones, Wilford, Akbar, Price, Bailly, Rus 
sell, Beattie, Herder, Carli, Barton &c. 
They shall speak for themselves, in quota 
tions of their own words, instead of elaborate 

From God comes wisdom, knowledge 
and understanding SOLOMON Prov. 2. v. ft. 
Those who will seek early wisdom will find 
her SOL. Pr. 8. v. 17. Hear instruction 
and be wise, and refuse it not SOL. Pr. 8. 
v. 33. 

ZE this is. SFR book. THU symbol. 
LDTH progeny. ADM mankind. BIUM 
in manifestation. BRA in realization. 
ALEIM angels. ADM mankind. BDM- 
UTH in identic passage. ALEIM angels. 
OSHE worked. ATHU such symbol. 
MOSES. Genesis ch, 5. v. 1. Genuine mo 
saic words, and genuine translation word 
for word. 

When I laid the foundations of the earth 
. . . the morning stars sung together, and 
the sons of God shouted for joy. SPEECH 
or GOD HIMSELF IN JOB ch. 38., Vulgar 
translation: the original is still more 

The Hebrew philosophy divided the 
world in two hemispheres, the upper was 
SHMIM or Sham-aim^ the Heavens the 
lower was SHEOL ; but SHEOL-TAHTITH 
or inferior, was the place of bad souls and 
Rephaim. (The true SHEOL was Ame 
rica, or the southern hemisphere). The 


Jesuit Sanetius thought that Job had spo 
ken of America. PETERS, Dissertation 
on Job. 

It is very possible for modern learning 
to understand better the books of Moses, 
Orpheus, and those of all ancient nations, 
than the Egyptian, Greek and Roman 
commentators : because the intellectual 
knowledge of languages is improving ; and 
those ancient writers have, by their genius, 
approximated to us, while removed from 
the blindness of their ages. GEBELIN, 
Primitive World. 

The letter kills, but the spirit gives life. 
ST. PAUL Corinth. II. ch. 3. v. 6. We 
use great plainness of speech, and not as 
MOSES who put a veil before his face, that 
the children of Israel could ,not stedfastly 
look to the end of that which is abolished. 
Cor. II. 3. v. 12, 13. and even unto 
this day, when Moses is read, the veil is 
upon their heart, nevertheless when it shall 
please the Lord, this veil shall be taken 
away. Cor. II. 3. v. 15, 16. 

To have a right apprehension of words 
or names, is a good step to the knowledge 
of things. PLATO in Cratylo. 

The confusion of words in the cause of 
all disputes and sects. D ISRAELI. 

The obscure ages demand bold hypo 
theses or total neglect, contradictions are 
inseparable from days of tradition. There 
exist no instance of a people really savage 
having spontaneously advanced to civiliza- 


tion. Savage men are degenerated or 
imperfect creatures. . .Words and even few 
are the rules of analogies in nations. 
NIEBUHR, Roman History, Vol I. 

It is manifest that there are noble re 
sources (for history) still remaining, if we 
will but apply ourselves to diligent enquiry. 
There are in every climate some scat 
tered fragments of original history, some 
traces of a primitive and universal lan 
guage. Even America would contribute 
to this purpose, the more rude the monu 
ments, the more ancient they may possi 
bly prove, and afford greater light on 
enquiry. BRYANT, MYTHOLOGY; conclu 
sion of the work. 

To accumulate materials without gene 
ralizing any idea is a method as sterile in 
history as in natural philosophy. The 
geology of America does not differ essen 
tially from that of the old world, the strata 
and the emersion from the waters are not 
newer : species long extinct have also pre 
ceded those now peopling the earth, the 
waters and the air. The problem of the 
first population of America is no more the 
province of history, than the questions on 
the origin of plants and animals. When 
we shall better know the brown men of 
Africa, with those of the north and east of 
Asia, the American nations will be less 
insulated They have extended from lat. 
68 N. to 55 S. or 123 degress of latitude, 
in plains and mountains, assuming various 
complexions and stature. If Africa has 


140 languages, America has still more; 
resembling in this, the Caucasus, Italy be 
fore the Romans ; but they are susceptible 
of classification into families. The multi 
plicity of languages is a very ancient phe 
nomenon, perhaps those which we call 
American, belong no more to America, than 
the Magyar and Choud or Finn to Europe. 
HUMBOLDT, American Researches, In 

If we desire to be fully informed of a 
nation s history, we must not reject the 
fables under which the few traces that re 
main of its origin are concealed. These, 
however extravagant, always merit atten 
tion they have an influence on the character 
of the people to whom they relate. First 
words of MALCOLM, History of Persia. 

The Chinese often call the king, the 
kingdom and the nation by the same name, 
nay, even also the capital city. REGIS, 
History of Corea, in Duhalde China. 

The cradle or first seat of mankind was 
in Asia, between lat. 30 and 50 ; which is 
also the native place of all the domestic 
animals, fruits and grains. Adelung, Bail- 
ly, Higgins, $c. 

The Genesis was a compilation of Moses 
from older annals, some perhaps by Noah 
himself. Revd. Mr. Davies, Herder. 

The patriarchs of Moses and Pitris of 
Hindus were nations, personifications of 
early tribes. Drummond, D Olivet, Wil- 

The early gods and kings of Greece and 


Italy, were probably tribes, the chiefs and 
followers being called by the same name. 
This is true also of the various Hercules 
or wandering Heros. Dodwell, Jamieson. 

Trying them by the languages, the Ame 
ricans will appear to be children of the 
earliest human families. BARTON, Physi 
cal Journal. 

A flood of historical light has lately flown 
from India and Asia ; but we lack still the 
real annals of Thibet : Polynesia and Ame 
rica may yet supply many facts and fill 
some blanks. The original seat of civili 
zation was between the Ganges and the 
Nile, the Caspian and the ocean. The 
first tribes after the flood were fishermen 
and Frugivores, next hunters who did 
spread north east as far as America, and 
shepherds south west, as far as Cape of 
Good hope. PRITCHARD, Physical His 
tory of Man. 

The genealogy of the kings of England 
is derived direct from Noah in 25 genera 
tions only, to Cerdic first king of Wessex 
in 495 ; and through SCEAF born in the 
ark ! giving more than 125 years for each 
generation, which is impossible, arid proves 
these names, successive tribes or dynasties 
till Woden. INGRAM, Saxon Chronicle. 

The Ethiopians, Nubians and Egyptians 
are a peculiar race, perhaps in Africa be 
fore the flood. CHAMPOLLION, Systcme 

The languages are better guides than 
physical characters for researches on man- 


kind, and roots more important than gram 
mars. KLAPROTH. 

Language belongs to man from origin^ 
he never was a dumb animal, else he would 
always have remained so. All languages 
have something in common, and something 
peculiar. BEATTIE, Theory of Language. 

A thousand nations with a thousand 
idioms, are spread over a thousand places 
on earth. Thrown against each other like 
the waves of the sea, they blend and tend 
to unity. Several rival languages are 
formed, polished by contract, which over 
spread the earth ; and break to pieces as 
well as nations and empires. Others arise 
from their ruins, and strive again for ascen 
dency, until at last a people and language, 
son and daughter of all the previous nations 
and idioms, heirs of their dominion and 
wealth; shall perhaps invade the whole 
earth, and produce again the unity of 
speech and rule. D OLIVET, End of He 
brew Grammar. 

It is said, In the beginning God made 
Heaven and Earth, that is to say, the 
seeds of heaven and earth, since their mat 
ter was yet in confusion in a potential 
way. ST. AUGUSTINE on Genesis. 

In the whole Mosaic text there is no 
Eden, no tree, no apple, no rib, no woman, 
no snake, no ark. . . . but other words 
thus improperly translated to veil the 
sense. . . . Adam is not a man, but man 
kind, Aish intellectual men, Ashe mate or 
potent will, HUE our Eve is living exist- 


ence ! . . . The names of patriarchs are 
all expressive of operations of mankind. . . 
Yet Moses Unity of God, and Belief in 
Immortality is evident throughout ; al 
though so obscured by the translation as 
to have been doubted. . . . Moses with 
his veils is made absurd ; raising the veils 
he appears wise, deep, consistent, even 
more enlightened than our age on many 
points. D OLIVET, Notes on Genesis. 

Whenever the numerical letters of Mo 
ses are taken in their material sense, inex 
tricable difficulties have arisen ; and which 
is the true version out of the 3 is doubtful : 
the deep mosaic meaning and import shall 
never be known, until the ancient lost sci 
ence of numbers is restored, which was 
once known from China to Egypt and 
Europe. D OLIVET, last note. 

Eblis or Satan was disgraced from Hea 
ven, where Rezoan was his successor, and 
exiled to Seyestan, with the Snake and 
Peacock tribes his followers, Adam was 
exiled to Ceylon, Eve to Arabia &c. 
PRICE, Translation of Abijayffer s His 
tory of Arabia. 

Menu was Adam, but there are seven 
Menus, the seventh was Noah. SIR W. 
JONES, Laws of Menu. WILFORD. 

The Babylonian empire begun 530 years 
after the flood, 2790 years after Adam. 
RUSSELL, Connection of Sacred History. 

Primitive history is under a veil, involved 
in fables; but all ancient fables have a his 
torical base. BAILLY, on Atlantis. 


Before Adam God created the Dives 
(angels) who had 72 kings or Sol-i-man 
for 7000 years, and after them the Peris 
govern for 2000 years, HERBELOT, Ori 
ental Librury. 

Noah dwelt near Cabul and Cashmir, his 
Ararat was in the Imalaya mountains. 
SHUCKFORD,WELLS, Sacred Geography fyc. 

As early as 4600 years before Christ, 
there was a communication between the 
Americans and the east by astronomical 
coincidences. CARLI, American Letters. 

Two great wars or Mahabharat followed 
by dispersions of mankind, happened in In 
dia in 3236 and 2501 (before our era) ; 
and the Indian solar empire of Berhut at 
Inderput now Delhi, ascends 16 genera 
tions beyond the first, at least to 3750 
years B. C. Institutes of the Emperor 
AKBAR, translated by GLADWIN. 

Such are my guides. Are not those 
quotations sufficient? 

For my rules of criticism, I have taken 
for guide, Isaac Taylor s excellent history 
of the transmission of ancient books, Lon 
don, 1827. They may be analysed as fol 
lows, from his own summary. 

1. If the records of antiquity could be de 
prived of their authority, we should also be 
deprived of intelligence, liberty and religion! 

2. Dates are of little importance; being 
anciently expressed by letters, they are 
liable to errors. The Greeks and all eas 
tern Christians reckon 5508 years from 
Adam to Christ. 


3. Geography and natural facts are open 
to criticism. 

4. Wonders, monsters, miracles, are not 
always fabulous, but doubtful. Natural 
phenomena if unconnected with omens, 
may be right. 

5. Speeches and secret motives do not 
belong to history, they are ornaments of 
rhetoric or mere surmises. 

6. Facts are only to be attended to, they 
become more certain, if corroborated by 
monuments, inscriptions, coins &c. 

7. The silence of a historian does not 
invalidate the assertions of others. 

8. Contradictions, exagerations, preju 
dices, party spirit, national dislike, must 
be allowed for. The arrogance of the 
Greeks and Chinese, who call barbarians, 
nations as good as they, is shameful, and 
must be noticed, as well as errors arising 
from hiding defeats &c. 

The independent sources of history be 
sides writers are, 1. remains of literature. 
2. Chronological documents and astrono 
mical calculations, 3. Natural features of 
nature and mankind, with permanent phy 
sical facts, 4. Permanent institutions, man 
ners, monuments, languages &c. Lastly, 
remote facts may be certain ; although a 
long while elapsed : whatever be the con 
sequence; and even if the first evidence 
may have been erroneously transmitted, or 
not perspicuous. But accumulated evi 
dence ought never to be doubted. 

&*?*&. &} ? & 


gions of America. Ancient and Mo 
dern Nations. Historical Periods. 

Since our Globe is better known, it is no 
longer divided into 4 Continents ; but must 
be divided into 3 great parts of the world 
or Tholomeres, each containing 3 lesser 
divisions or Geotomes, viz: 

I. PROTIIOLIA or THOLARKON, the ancient 
\vorld, containing, 1. Asia, 2. Africa, 3. 
Europe, which are continents. 

world, containing, 1. Atalia or North Ame 
rica, 2. Columbia or South America, which 
are two continents . . . and 3. the Antilles 
OP West Indies, the Archipelagos to the 
East and North, Carib and Lucayes islands, 

or Insular world, containing, 1. Australia, 
which is a continent, 2. Meganesia or the 
great Islands from Japan till Ceylan and 
Madagascar, 3. Polynesia, the small Eas 
tern Islands. These two last form immense 
groups of archipelagos, or clustered islands. 

Therefore the terrestrial world includes 
6 continents, and 3 groups of archipelagos, 
forming 9 geotomes. 

It is of NEOTHOLIA that I write the history, 
of this third of the world, named likewise 


America, or the two Americas ; a double 
continent, crowned in the East and towards 
the two poles by archipelagos. 

Such an extensive part of the world, 
reaching nearly to both poles, offers to 
our notice and researches a crowd of ob 
jects, nations and events. If our universal 
histories which are confined to a small part 
only of the old world, form already bulky 
collections; it would be equally so with 
America, if we had complete annals of it. 
But, notwithstanding the scanty materials 
which have reached us on its ancient histo 
ry ; the modern annals and the old traditions 
of the nations dwelling there, afford many 
facts : and many auxiliary means contribute 
to enlarge the previous history, in unfolding 
the origins and revolutions of the nations 
and empires of both Americas. Thus, we 
shall often have to make a choice or abridge 
these materials, particularly in these out 
lines of a general history. 

Formerly, historians wrote chiefly chroni 
cles of the empires, kingdoms and republics; 
which were often mere biographies of mo- 
narchs and chiefs, conquerors and tyrants. 
We begin now to think more of mankind 
and the nations. I shall follow this princi 
ple, and trace at last a national history of 
America; this subject is so new, that we 
have not even yet a good history of man 
kind in Europe, much less in Asia and 

Having dwelt in this continent since 


having settled in it since 1815, and having 
travelled in it every year to study the monu 
ments and productions thereof: it was since 
1818 that I began to conceive the possibility 
of raising the veil that was thrown over 
the annals of this third of the world. I 
have visited the public libraries of Wash 
ington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New-York, 
Boston, Albany, Lexington, &c. to consult 
all the historical works on America, and 
every other part of the world. I have read 
nearly all the travels in America and other 
distant countries. In the Ebeling library 
deposited in that of Cambridge University 
near Boston, I have found many ancient 
works on America, often unique in the 
United States, and very rare even in Eu 
rope. There is but a small number of rare 
works, which I have not yet been able to 
see ; I shall give a list of them, in order 
that it may be ascertained whether they 
contain facts that have escaped me. My 
researches upon the languages and monu 
ments of America, will compensate this 
unavoidable neglect, since they exceed 
whatever had been undertaken of the kind. 
I have thus endeavored to collect and com 
pare all the facts relating to my subject. 

I have not imitated, therefore, the lazy 
writers, who have pretended to give us 
histories of America, and have commonly 
produced mere sketches of it, full of ne 
glects and defects. Such were Robertson, 
Holmes, Touron, Herrera, &c., with a crowd 


of imitators and compilers, which confine 
themselves to some years, or a single re 
gion, or the mere first Spanish invasions. 
They have, however, acquired some repu 
tation either by style or manner ; but they 
have degraded history, by giving sketches 
instead of it. We must except Herrera, 
who does not shine by the style ; but is at 
least a faithful annalist of the Spanish deeds 
and colonies during 62 years, from 1492 
till 1552. But Robertson, although praised 
for his style, is only his unfaithful and im 
perfect imitator, and the obvious slanderer 
of the American nations. 

A complete criticism of the writers on 
America, would be desirable ; but cannot 
enter into the plan of these historical out 
lines ; although it may find a place in ulte 
rior illustrations. It will be sufficient now 
to indicate that the best works, or those 
which furnish the greatest number of his 
torical materials, are the old writers and 
travellers; Since the modern historians 
and travellers (except Humboldt and a 
few more) appear to forget whatever has 
already been written on America. 

The historian of such an extensive con- 
\ tinent, should not be a mere annalist ; but 
he ought to know well all the comparative 
sciences, sisters of history, such as chrono 
logy, geograghy, biography, archeology, 
ethnography, philology, &c. He ought 
also to be a philosopher and a philanthro 
pist, to know the natural sciences which 


become connected with history by civiliza 
tion, agriculture, and geology ; he ought, 
above all, to be impartial and a good critic, 
in order to discard national prejudices, and 
avoid the blunders of credulity or impos 
ture. What historian has ever united such 
acquirements ? I have tried to acquire 
them : Have I succeeded ? I offer my 
writings as the answer. 

My method has been to make copious 
extracts of all the authors that I read. 
These materials already form a collection 
of over one hundred books of 6000 pages 
on the history of the earth and mankind : 
whereof I avail myself for all my historical 
works. I have formed besides another col 
lection of iconographic illustrations, maps, 
plans, monuments, views, portraits, alpha 
bets, symbols, implements, costumes, &/c.; 
which may serve for proofs and atlas of 
these works, published or manuscript. This 
tellurian iconography, chiefly American, 
consists already in ten great books or port 
folios ; having little hope to be enabled to 
publish them, I wish they might be de 
posited in a great public library, where 
they might be consulted. 

Instead of beginning this history of the 
Americans by generalities, I should wish to 
conclude the work by such results ; but it 
may frequently be needful to deviate from 
this plan, and present results as they hap 
pen to arise from the facts and events. 

The different parts of the Western Hem- 



isphere are often distantly remote, and 
insulated, or little connected in their his 
torical relations. Austral America and 
Boreal America have for instance hardly 
any historical connection: they are as 
widely separated as China and Europe; 
but all the central parts of America are 
intimately connected, above all the moun 
tain regions from Mexico to Chili, which 
offer the same relation of civilization, lan 
guages and annalogies, as the Hindu-Euro 
pean regions and nations. 

The Neotholian Hemisphere contains 
many distinct regions ; but the natural or 
physical regions are not always identic 
with the historical regions. The isthmus 
of Panama or valley of Choco does not di 
vide the nation as it does the two continents 
of America : and many groups of nations 
are intermingled throughout. The group 
of ancient ARU AC nations extended from 
near Florida through the Antilles, Guyana,. 
Brazil to Tucuman and Magellania. The 
elder group of TALA or atlantic nations 
could be traced from the Ohio to Mexico,, 
Guatimala and South America in the west. 

Notwithstanding this fact, it is useful to 
keep in mind the great natural regions of 
America, so as to trace through them the 
vicissitudes of mankind in ancient and mo 
dern times. Thus we find six such regions 
in North America, and six in South Ame 
rica, with 3 in the Antilles. 

1. Boreal region, or region of the lakes, 


stretching across North America, from the 
straight of Behring and peninsula Alaska 
in the west, to Labrador, Canada and Nova 
Scotia in the east. It is distinguished by 
a rocky soil, many large lakes and millions 
of small ones, surrounded near the pole and 
on either side by groups of islands. Its 
southern limits are undefined, but Lake 
Erie forms one of them. 

2. The California!! or Oregon region, 
stretching from north to south along the 

1 Pacific Ocean from Fuca Strait to Mexico 

I and Guatimala. It is a region of plains 
and hills. 

3. The Mexican region or central moun 
tains and table lands from the sources of 
the Missouri to Lake Nicaragua, distin 
guished by volcanoes, a dry lofty soil, &c. 

4. The Missouri region, extending in 
vast grassy plains from latitude 50 to the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

5. The Alleghany region, stretching in 
woody hills and mountains from Maine to 
Alabama and Illinois. The Ozark moun 
tains and the whole of New England appear 
detached portions of it. 

G. The Litoral Atlantic region, stretch 
ing from Long Island to Florida, Mexico, 
Yucatan and Honduras, forming a long 
but narrow region of level plains, sands 
arid marshes, skirted by sandy shores and 

The Antilles or West Indies, are all isl 
ands ; divided into 3 very natural groups. 


1. The large and hilly Islands of Ja 
maica, Cuba, Hayti, Boriqircn. 

2. The Lucayes or Bahama Islands 
north of them, low and chiefly of coral 

3. The Carib Islands east and south, 
commonly volcanic. 

The regions of South America are 1. 
That of the Andes or high volcanic moun 
tains extending from Santa Marta to the 
Island of Chiloe, stretching branches east 
as far as Cumana, and east of Peru. The 
hills of Panama from Nicaragua to Choco, 
are a detached part of it, probably once an 
island of the size of Cuba. Also the Ma- 
gellanic or Austral region, including the 
hills and islands south of Chili, all detached 
from the Andes, with the archipelagos of 
Chiloe, Chonos, Fuego, Austral, Falkland, 
<&c. often volcanic. 

2. The Atacama region, or lowlands 
along the Pacific Ocean from the valleys of 
Darieri and Choco to Chili, distinguished 
by sterility. 

3. The Pampas or region of unwooded 
plains east of the Andes from the strait of 
Magellan to Paraguay and Chaco. 

4. The region of Brazil, distinguished by 
fertile hills, mountains and valleys, forming 
a vast group of high lands connected to the 
Andes by an isthmus. 

5. The region of Guyana or Parima, of 
shady hills perfectly insulated (once a large 
island) by the plains of the Maranon and 
Oronoc . 


6. The vast equinoctical pi ains of Oronoc 
and Maranon, surrounding the mountains 
of Parima: where deserts, swamps and 
forests are mixed. 

These 15 regions are quite natural, dis 
tinguished by peculiar physical, and geolo 
gical features ; but they do not coincide 
with the ethnological regions, where the 
American tribes have spread and inter 
mixed. It would be difficult to state here 
even the most striking of these last. It 
will be the aim of this work to seek for 
them, and ascertain their limits; which 
have often varied anciently : while in mo 
dern times the European colonies and 
states have invaded them in all directions. 

Meantime the population of both Ame 
ricas, must be distinguished in ancient and 

In proceeding from the known to the 
unknown : we ascertain that a multitude of 
nations have come to America since 1492, 
as colonists or visitors. The principal were 

1. Spanish : who have colonized or con 
quered from New Mexico to Chili, and from 
Florida to Buenos Ayres. But they came 
not alone, and have brought along with 
them as auxiliaries. 1. Italians, 2. Flemish, 
3. Biscayans, 4. Canarians, &,c., while as 
slaves 5. Moors of Mauritania, and G. Many 
African-negro nations. 

2: Portuguese : who have colonized the 
whole of Brazil, and brought there besides 
many Negro nations, some Moors, Gypsies, 
Chinese, &c. 


3. English: Who have colonized the 
whole eastern side of North America, Ja 
maica and other islands of Antilles, with 
parts of Yucatan, Honduras, Guyana, &c. 
But they have brought with them, the 
Welsh, Scotch, Irish, Germans, Jews and 
many African nations. 

4. French: They colonized Canada, 
Lousiana, Hayti, several Carib islands, 
Cayenne in Guyana, &,c., and although 
conquered in North America and Hayti, 
their language remains. They brought 
along the Provencals, Bretons, Basks, 
speaking distinct languages, with several 
African nations. 

5. Scandinavians : Who partly settled 
in North America since the 10th century, 
did laterly colonize again Greenland, with 
Delaware and some Carib Islands. They 
include the Norwegians, Danes and Swedes. 

6. Dutch-Hollanders : Sent colonies to 
New- York, Surinam, Curazao, &c. brought 
Gypsies, Germans and Africans. 

7. Russians: Have invaded and partly 
settled the north west shores and islands 
of North America ; bringing there Cozacs, 
Calmucs, and several other Tartarian sub 

8. Besides these, several other nations 
have laterly visited America, or settled 
therein, blending w r ith the above. All the 
nations of Europe, even Hungarians, Po- 
landers, Greeks and Turks, have been 
brought there. Pirates of all nations, even 


Algerines, have wandered to America. 
Almost all the nations of Africa have heen 
led there in slavery. Asia has sent Jews, 
Hindus, Gypsies or Zinganis, Chinese and 
Tartars : while Oceania has sent Malays, 
Madagascar s, Hawayans, &c. 

This well known fact of the various and 
anomalous modern population of both Ame 
ricas within 3 or 4 centuries, will greatly 
help us to form a more correct estimate of 
the ancient population and colonization of 
such vast countries during many thousand 
years previous to 1492. 

It is not yet suitable to give here a com 
plete list of all the ancient nations, who 
have, or may have colonized the Western 
hemisphere : this can only be done after 
wards as a result of the instituted enquiries 
on the subject. Meantime I state as highly 
probable, even by mere analogy, that all 
the nearest nations of the Atlantic or Pacific 
Oceans, in the Eastern hemisphere, have 
either visited or colonized the Americas ; 
particularly from the east, the bold naviga 
tors, Atlarites, Pelagians, Phenicians, Ly- 
byans, Etruscans, &c., and from the west 
the ancient tribes of Tartars arid Chinese, 
the Polynesians, &c. We shall throughout 
these historical outlines find ample proofs 
of this fact, exploding the erroneous belief 
that a single nation could have populated 
the whole of the Western Hemisphere. It 
shall appear also that these early settlers 
must have brought along many foreign 
tribes, as auxiliaries, vassals or slaves. 


In my Atlantic Journal of 1832 will be 
found a kind of classification of the ancient 
nations of both Americas, divided into 25 
groups, 14 in North, 11 in South America. 
But this first attempt, cannot be perfect : 
it requires a close study of all the American 
languages, before we can ascertain cor 
rectly all their mutual affinities, and reduce 
each to the real parent group. Meantime 
this attempt, and the further correction of 
it in this work, will become very useful his 
torical bases. I give therefore the list of 
the 25 groups, with a well known nation 
and language as the type, to which others 
may be gradually reduced. 

In North America 1. Uski or Innuit, 
type the Esquimaux. 

2. Ongwi, type the Hurons and Iroquois. 

3. Linni, type the Linapi or Dela- 

4. Wacash, type the Chopunish, and 

5. Skerreh, type the Panis. 

6. Nachez, type the Cados and Cheti- 

7. Capaha, types the Washas or Ozages, 
and Dacotas or Sioux. 

8. Chactah, types the Chactahs and 

9. Otali, Tzulukis or Cherokis. 

10. Atalan, type the Tarascas. 

11. Otomi, type the Otomis. 

12. Anahuac, type the Aztecas. 

13. Maya, types the Mayas and Huaz- 


14. Cliontal, type the Tzendals and 

In South America 15. Aruac, types the 
Haytians, Aruacs, Taos, &LC. 

16. Calina, types the Caribs and Tama- 

17. Puris, type the Maypuris. 

18. Yarura, types the Guaraos and Be- 

19. Cuna, type the Dariens. 

20. Mayna, type the Panos. 

21. Maca, type the Muyzcas. 

22. Guarani, type the Tupis and Oma- 

23. Mara,) type the Quichuas and Ay- 

24. Lule, types the Vilelas and Mbayas. 

25. Chili, type the Chilians. 
Notwithstanding the condensed form of 

these outlines, the ample materials to be 
brought together, will extend them perhaps 
beyond the desirable limits. In order to 
lessen this difficulty and yet omit nothing 
that is new or important, the work will be 
divided into three series. 

1st. The annals of South America, where 
many generalities will be introduced, that 
need not be repeated in the 2d series, on 
the annals of North America. 

3d. Illustrations of these outlines, where 
will be thrown and collected all the colla 
teral proofs, documents, vocabularies of 
languages, manuscript facts and events, 


essential quotations, and results of all the 

The Peruvian and Austral regions of 
South America will first be introduced, 
because of paramount importance. By 
the Peruvian region is meant the whole 
western part of South America from the 
equator to the southern tropic, and by Aus 
tral America, the whole of it from that 
tropic to the Magellanic Islands. The 
gulf of Rio Plata and the river Paraguay, 
appear to divide these regions from Brazil, 
both physically and historically. Austral 
America includes the countries and nations 
of Chili, Tucuman, Chaco, Buenos Ayres, 
Patagonia and Magellania ; but it shall 
often be needful to mention their neighbors, 
with whom they are more or less related, 
and even distant nations that are not al 
ways strangers to them. 

The ancient nations of Austral America 
are the least known on many accounts, and 
those on whom most fables and systems 
have been based. It is there that dwell 
the Patagons, who have been believed a 
peculiar species of giants ; and those tribes 
of Chaco, &,c., which Azara has deemed 
peculiar men, with languages without affi 
nities with any other: which will easily be 
proved to be quite false. 

If America has had an aboriginal popu 
lation, or Autoctons, men born from the 
soil : it is there they should be found, dri 
ven to the south and those remote climes 


by the ancient colonies of other nations; 
and they should offer features, complexions, 
languages and manners totally different 
from any other. If all the Americans de- ) 
rive from ancient colonies, it is still there 
that ought to be found the primitive tribes, 
driven on by the subsequent colonies and 
tribes. Therefore these Austral tribes are 
exceedingly interesting to study as the most 
ancient relics of American population. 

But the origin of the American nations 
and tribes are only to be considered as a 
branch of their history. The accounts of 
their dispersion and successive settlements, 
the history of the events which they have 
remembered and transmitted to us by tra 
ditions or annals, those of the empires which 
have been founded there in ancient and 
modern times, the study of their civilization 
and ethnography .... offer surely much 
more interest, and a wide field of historical 
facts or enquiries. 

It appears that as soon as we speak of 
the ancient Americans, we ought to cut 
the gordian knot, and say whence they 
came. I do not wish to explain before 
hand, all my views on this subject. I wish 
to reserve them for the results of the en 
quiries to be pursued in this work. Yet to 
satisfy the general curiosity expressed on 
the subject, I may venture to say that I 
have not yet found in either Americas, any 
people or tribe totally different from any 


other, or without philological affinities : nor 
with features, complexions, and other physi 
cal characters quite peculiar. But instead, 
all the ancient American tribes have nume 
rous affinities between each other, and 
with races of mankind in the Eastern 
hemisphere : both physical and moral, as 
well as philological. 

If the American nations sprung from 
ancient colonies ; it is among the primitive 
population of the earth, that their parents 
must be sought and found : since America 
appears to have been partly peopled even 
before the flood. Therefore the systems 
which would derive them all from the Phe- 
nicians, Jews, Chinese, Tartars of later 
ages, or any single people whatever, must 
be absurd and improbable : since traces of 
many ancient nations are found in this 
western hemisphere. 

It has always appeared probable to me 
that most of the ancient colonies to Ame 
rica, must have come there by the nearest 
and most direct way ; the same nearly fol 
lowed again by Columbus in 1492 : either 
ffom north Africa or south Europe. This 
becomes still more probable if there were 
formerly a land or large islands in the At 
lantic Ocean ; of which we have ample 
proofs. Nearly all the nations from Flo 
rida and Mexico to Chili, appear to have 
reached America from the east, through 
the tropical islands or Antilles; but the 


ancestors of these emigrating tribes, dwelt 
once in Asia, which appears the cradle of 

However, many nations of Brazil and Guy 
ana are more recent and of African origin ; 
while nearly all those of North America 
appear to have reached America by the 
opposite direction of Eastern Asia, through 
Alaska or the Streight of Behring, once an 
Isthmus. Therefore the Colonial tribes 
came here from the East, and the North 
West. It is more doubtful that any came 
from the West or Polynesia. 

What is now needful, is to trace these 
colonies, their travels, epochas, and ascer 
tain the nations which they have produced 
in both Americas. This I will endeavour 
to do, without being prevented by the diffi 
culties of the task. I shall always seek to 
ascertain the true names of each nation 
or tribe : which have often been disguised 
under a crowd of nicknames and erroneous 
orthographies. These names when thus 
restored will often furnish an original key, 
to supply the scarcely known languages, or 
lost traditions. 

The Brigands who brought desolation 
over both Americas during two centuries, 
arid the careless travellers who visited them 
in search of wealth, took little notice of the 
languages and traditions of their victims 
or foes. Thus we have to regret the loss 
of many valuable materials, merely indi 
cated. However, a few enlightened visitors, 


and the missionaries have preserved some 
of them. The first attempt of the kind was 
the outlines of historical songs and tradi 
tions of Hayti, collected as early as 1498 
by friar Roman, at the request of Colum 
bus ; printed by his son, and by Barcias. 
Yet this valuable document has escaped 
the notice of nearly all the writers on Ame 
rica ! evident proof of utter carelessness or 

Piedrahita has given some of the histo 
rical traditions of the Muyzcas; Juarros 
the annals of the Toltecas of Guatimaia; 
Ayeta and Herrera those of the Mayas of 
Yucatan. Yet they have been neglected 
by our historians. They have merely dwelt, 
and even sparingly, on the annals of Mexico 
and Peru. We have besides fragments on 
the early history of the Ongwis, Linapis, 
Apalachis, Caribs, Dariens, and a few more ; 
but \ve have to regret the loss of the w r ritten 
annals of many civilized nations, the Ta- 
rascas, Huaztecas, Zapotecas, Nicaraguas, 
Chontals, Chilians, Panos, &c. Some of 
which may perhaps be yet partly recovered, 
as those of the Ongwis and Linapis have 
lately been. 

It is only since last age that the study of 
comparative philology has begun to be 
appreciated : and quite recently that lan 
guages have been made subservient to his 
torical researches. Pigafetta had, however, 
set the examples as early as 1520 to collect 
American vocabularies, of which he gave 


two, the Brazilian and g^agon: which 
are quite Important, since by" them we 
trace both tribes seen by him to the ARUAC 
race. For lack of frequent ancient vocabu 
laries, we must often grope in the dark ; 
but I do not despair to be able to restore 
many lost languages, by fragments escaped 
from the common ruin. I have already 
succeeded with the Taino of Hayti, the 
Cahiri of Trinidad, Taiega and Apalaclti 
of North America, the Chontal of central 
America, the Cotta of Peru, and the Seke 
of old Chili ; whereby I shall draw some 
happy conclusions. 

Asia has been the country of fables, Af 
rica of monsters, and America of systems, 
for those who prefer opinions to reality. 
The systems and hypotheses of philosophy 
or ignorance upon America, exceed all the 
Asiatic fables. A crowd of prejudices, 
false opinions and fantastic theories, ..have 
been asserted on this hemisphere, often 
mistaking a small part of it for the whole. 
Some have declared all the Americans a 
red, beardless, naked and barbarous race, 
or a peculiar species of men. Others that 
they came out of the ground or from the 
clouds, or over a bridge, instead of boats 
or on the ice. Others that they are all 
Jews, or Malays, or Tartars. Lastly, even 
that Eden was here and Noah built the ark 
in America ! All these systems and fifty 
more brought forth by ignorance or pride, 
are based upon the most absurd proofs, or 


a few insulated facts : while there are his 
torical facts easy to prove that are neglected 
or forgotten. 

Thus it is a positive fact that many 
ancient nations of the east, such as the 
Lybians, Moors, Etruscans, Phenicians, 
Hindus, &c. had heard of America, or 
knew nearly as much of it, as we did of 
Australia and Polynesia 100 years ago. 
It is as certain that America contained 
anciently, as even now, a crowd of distinct 
nations and tribes ; some of which were 
quite civilized, perhaps as much as the 
Spaniards led by Columbus; the others 
more barbarous, but not entirely savage. 
There were but few, if any, real savages in 
America, dwelling in woods without social 
ties ; most of them were wandering tribes 
of fishermen or hunters. 

There were formerly in America as now, 
tribes of all complexions, as elsewhere : 
yellowish, olive, coppery, tawny, redened, 
brown, incarnate or white, and even black 
ened or negro-like. Tall and dwarfish men 
from 8 to 4 feet in size, called giants and 
pygmies men with various frames, skulls, 
aiid features, of all the sorts found in the 
eastern hemisphere. 

The Americans had long before Colum 
bus, large cities ; built of stones, bricks or 
wood, with walls, ditches, temples, palaces. 
Some of which were of immense size and 
population. One of them Otolum near 
Palenque was 28 miles long, equal ,to 


Thebes, Babylon and Kinoj in size and 
monuments. Nearly all the ancient sci 
ences and useful primitive arts were known 
in America, as well as commerce and navi 
gation, symbolic and alphabetic writing, 
nearly all the Asiatic religions, &c. The 
most civilized nations had even colleges 
and universities, canals and paved roads, 
splendid temples and monuments, &c. 

It would be tedious to designate all what 
has not been told, or been very unworthily 
noticed, upon America. The whole of 
these outlines shall be comments upon the 
forgotten facts relating to this third of the 
world. Such as are found recorded by 
chance in one or few authors, scattered in 
1000 volumes, unsought and unnoticed by 
nearly all the othef -writers. 

Respecting the chronology of the Ame 
rican annals, it is rather obscure and doubt 
ful ; but perhaps not more so than that of 
all ancient nations except the Chinese. It 
frequently ascends as far as the floods and 
even the creation. The most ancient dates 
are found among the Tols or Toltecas and 
Atlantes, Mexicans or Aztecas, the Muyz- 
cas, Origwis, Linapis, &c. But it is difficult 
to make those dates agree among them 
selves, or with our oriental dates. However 
the American annals may be divided into 
great periods, which can be admitted as 
certain, and resting points of history at 
peculiar epochas. 


Here is their tabular view. 
I. Ancient history, ending with Colum~ 
bus in 1492. 

1. Antidiluman period, beginning at 
the creation, about 6690 years before Co 
lumbus according to the Tols, and ending 
with the last cataclysm of Peleg, about 
3788 years before Columbus. 

2. Doubtful period, from that epocha 
till the reform of Tol astronomy, 1612 years 
before Columbus. This includes several 
subordinate periods and epochas. 

About 3100 years before Columbus, set^ 
tlement of the Linapis in Shinaki or Firland 
or Oregon in N. W. America. 

About 2500 years before Columbus, wars 
of the Towancas and Ongwis, the hero 
Yatatan, &c. in North America. 

3. Certain period, from 1612 till Co 
lumbus arrival in 1492. Many lesser pe 
riods and epochas. 

442, after Christ End of the Tollan 

492, Beginning of Atotarho dinasty of 

558, Empire of Tol-tecas begins in 
Anahuac, and lasts till 942. 

840, Beginning of the wars of Zipanas 
and Caris in South Peru. 

947, Foundation of the kingdom of 
Mayapan by Cuculcan in Yucatan. 

985, Discovery of America by the 


1000, Conquest of Quito by the Skirls. 

1105, Beginning of the Incas empire. 

1322, Foundation of Tenuchtitlan or 

II. Modern history, from 1492 till our 

1. Colonial Period, from 1492 till 1776. 

2. Independent Period, beginning in 
1776. The foundation of the empire of 
Brazil in 1822 may begin a subordinate 

Each age may bear the name of a wise 
legislator or eminent personage : the ages 
of modern history are those of 1. Columbus, 
2. Las-Casas, 3. William Penn, 4. Wash 
ington, 5. Bolivar. 


CANS. Authors, Documents, Sciences. 
Languages, Civilization, <$*c. 

FAR from following the example of many 
American historians, who often take a sin 
gle guide for their crude compilations, or 
avoid the trouble to consult all the historical 
sources, I have taken care in my researches 
to employ all the possible means to reach 
the truth, and collect all the facts that are 
scattered among a crowd of writers. I 
have carefully analysed, compared and 
judged the materials, details and events 


thus procured : nay, all the auxiliary sci 
ences have afforded additional fragments 
or proofs. 

These materials may be divided into 10 
series or kinds 

1. Works, printed or manuscript. 

2. Documents and monuments. 

3. Maps, plans, views, &/C. 1 

4. Natural sciences. 

5. Ethnography. 

G. Traditions and annals. 

7. Chronology and astronomy. 

8. Languages and philology. 

9. Religion, mythologies, &c. 

10. Civilization, laws and manners.. 

The writers upon America are very nu 
merous ; but mostly defective or local. A 
number, however, have attempted to con 
sider the whole continent : the principal 
among those containing facts upon all parts 
of America are chiefly 

Herrera, History and Geography of Spa 
nish America carried till the year 1554. 

Delaet, Historical Geography of Ame 
rica, till 1630. 

Garcias, Origins of the Americans. 
Spanish work. 

Carli, American Letters. Italian work. 

Ogilby, History and Geography of Ame 
rica, till 1670. 

Raynal, European Settlements in Ame 
rica, till 1774. 

Alcedo, Geographical Dictionary of Spa 
nish America in 1786. Spanish work. 


Maltebrun, Improved Geography, 1820. 

Touron, History of America, chiefly 
ecclesiastical, and incomplete, 14 volumes 
1768-70, in French. 

Robertson, false History of America or 
Spanish Conquests of Mexico or Peru. 

The collections of travels by Hackluyt, 
Purchas, Harris, Ramusio, Barcias, Pre- 

rost, &c. 
The American researches of Ulloa, 
Humboldt, M Culloh, &c. 

I have consulted and analyzed all these 
general works, and many others of less 
account ; but I have not yet read Hervas 
nor Compagnone, knowing them merely 
through quotations 

The first Bibliotheca Americana or 
catalogue of writers on America, was given 
by Kennet in 1701 and 1713. Another 
appeared in England in 1719 ; a third in 
France in 18*20. They contain the names, 
authors, editions, dates, &c. of over 300 
works relating to America. Robertson 
has given a list of nearly as many, which 
he pretends to have consulted, although he 
neglected what they tell us. Humboldt 
has also a catalogue of 250 authors, 
consulted by him. In 1831, Aspinwall 
published his American Library contain 
ing 771 works ; and Warden, in Paris, his 
own, containing 977 American works with 
133 atlasses and maps. 

All this does not complete the account 
of books on America ; since I have seen 


many omitted in all these catalogues ; al 
though I never could meet some mentioned 
there. I will carefully notice them, that it 
maybe known where I found my materials, 
and what may yet have escaped my re 
searches. I have already consulted upwards 
of 600 writers on both Americas, and there 
are at least 1000 already printed, I mean 
special or local works connected with his 
tory. If we were to add to these the bo 
tanists, naturalists, paltry compilers, and 
pamphlets, we might make a catalogue of 
3000 works on America, her inhabitants 
and productions. 

I will refer gradually to them, and have 
collected them all in my manuscript illustra 
tions ; materials, printed works. There 
fore we do not lack printed materials : but 
the choice of the best is difficult : since 
many works merely consist in fables, blun 
ders, errors, hypotheses and their constant 
repetitions : which ought to be rejected in 
order to gather facts and the truth. But 
we must not reject as pyrrhoniams all that 
may clash with our ideas and systems : it 
is chiefly needful so recall and restore the 
events and facts mentioned by the earliest 
travellers and observers. 

These numerous local writers ought to 
be divided into three classes. 1. historians 
and annalists, 2. travellers and geographers, 
3. antiquarians and philologists. I shall 
now merely mention the most useful (which 
I have all consulted) upon the Peruvian 
and Austral regions of South America. 


1st. The principal historians are, 1. 
Molina, History of Chili, 2. Funes, Civil 
History of Buenos Ayres, Paraguay and 
Tucuman, 3. Lavega, History of Peru, 4. 
Debrizoffer, history of Abipones, 5. Char- 
levoix of Paraguay, 6. Techo, on Ditto, 
7, 8. Lozano and Jolis on Chaco, 9. Mura- 
tori, and 10. Renger, Paraguay. 

2d. The principal writers who have 
furnished historical facts, with geographical 
and ethnographical materials, are old tra 
vellers, 1. Pigafetta and Magellan, 2. Ca 
bot, 3. Shmidel, 4. Drake, 5. Cavendish, 6. 
Acarete, 7. Knivet, 8. Frezier, 9 Sepp, 10. 
Brewer, 11. Nyel, 12. Schmidtrneyer. 

The modern travellers are, 1. Azara, 2 
D Ulloa, 3. Humboldt, 4. Cook, 5. Byron, 6. 
Laperouse, 7. Stevenson, 8. Myers, 9. Heyn, 
10. Beaumont, 11. Gillespie, 12. Vidal, 13. 
Wedel, 14. King, 15. Morrell, 16. Andrew, 
17. Temple, 18. Mawe, 19. Proctor, 20. 
Graham, 21. Head, 22. Pernetty. 

The principal original geographers and 
ethnographers are, 1. Fernandez on Chi- 
quitos 1726, 2. Bueno, Ditto 1800, 3. Falk- 
ner, on Patagonia 1774, 4. Molina on Chili 
and Cuyo, 5. Lozano on Chaco 1733, 6. 
Skinner, Memoirs on Peru, 7. Gili, South 
America 1782. 

3d. Lastly the auxiliary writers on philo 
logy, antiquities and other historical branch 
es are, 1. Adelung, Vater, Maltebrun, Balbi, 
&c., on all American languages, 2. Ameri 
can researches of Humboldt, Macculoh 


1829. Those of Depaw and Ranking are 
shameful, perverting every thing to support 
false systems. 

Manuscripts. There are yet many such 
extant on America, in the libraries of both 
hemispheres. Clavigero gave a long list 
of Mexican Manuscripts. Funes quotes 
several on Austral America. There are 
several extant in Central America and 
South America, in Peru and Brazil. Many 
have been lost through wilful neglect, or 
destroyed at the Spanish Conquest, the 
expulsion of Jesuits, &c. Those in the an- 
-cient languages, Mexican, Tarasca, Tzen- 
dal, &c., are now very rare, and much 
esteemed. Those burnt by Zumaraga, the 
Mexican Omar, have been often regretted. 
Lord Kingborough has lately published 
some at a great cost. 

The manuscripts which I could consult 
on South America are but few. Those on 
North America are more numerous and 
very important ; particularly the traditions 
of the Linapis, Shawanis, &c., they are 
chiefly on wood, bark, skins or Mosaic 
strings. But I have received several man 
uscript vocabularies of the languages of 
Guyana, Brazil, Texas, Mexico, &c. and I 
have consulted several manuscripts in the 
libraries of Philadelphia. 

There are, besides, in the public or pri 
vate libraries of all the great cities of both 
Americas, several interesting historical 
works, which have never been published. 


There are several in Philadelphia, particu 
larly the historical collections of Simetierre. 
Often the best or most important works 
cannot be printed : while a crowd of paltry 
compilations are ushered to deceive the 
public. This may be deemed a remainder 
of the prevailing ignorance and error. In 
stead of appreciating the learned and useful 
works, the prevailing taste is for historical 
romances and systematic fables. It is 
needful to seek these previous labors, which 
run the rish of being totally lost, if we will 
not have again to blush hereafter for these 
historical losses. 

I give the list of such among my own 
manuscripts, as have been employed to 
write this history. They are yet in my 
possession, but I wish to see them deposited 
in a great public library ; where they might 
be consulted. 

1. Materials for the history, ethnogra 
phy, &c. of the Americans, their annals, 
chronology, &/c. 40 books, begun in 1820, 
continued ever since, and not yet closed. 

2. Vocabularies of the ancient and mo 
dern languages of both Americas, symbols, 
glyphs, &c, 4 books, begun 1824. 

3. Comparitive geography and ethnogra 
phy of ancient and modern America, 5 
books, with maps, &c, begun 1824. 

4 Ancient monuments of North and 
South America, compared with the primi 
tive monuments of the eastern hemisphere, 
3 books and 200 plans, &c., 1822. 


5. TELLUS, or the primitive History of 
the Earth and Mankind in Protliolia, Oce 
ania and Neotholia, with the ancient and 
modern general ethnography, 30 books, 
begun in 1821. 

6. Synglosson, or compared examination 
of all languages and nations, 6 books, begun 

7. Iconographical Illustrations of all my 
historical works and travels, containing 
over 1000 maps, plans, views, costumes, 
portraits, alphabets, symbols, implements, 
&/c., in 10 cartoons, begun 1810. 

8. Travels in North America, in 1802 y 
8, 4, and from 1815 to 1835. In many 
manuscript books and journals. 

I have often been apprehensive of the 
fate of Boturini, for these interesting manu 
script and long researches. This has hap 
pened already for one of my manuscripts* 
As early as 1825 I sent to the Academy 
of Science in Boston, a manuscript of 240 
pages, being an account of the materials 
yet existing for the history of the nations 
and tribes of America before Columbus. 
This was for an offered prize of $100: which 
was never awarded, although my memoir 
was declared the best sent. And instead 
of depositing this manuscript in the library 
of the American Antiquarian Society as 
requested, it has been lost or stolen. If 
never recovered, and that the public may 
judge of the merits of it, at such an early 
period of my historical studies : I will state 


the principal results of my enquiries there 
in ; which tenor, together with their length, 
were the ostensible reasons for not award 
ing a prize probably never meant to be 

I therein proved in 18^ 5, 1st. that there 
are yet materials enough, notwithstanding 
the loss of many, for an ancient history of 

2. That a complete American history 
ought to employ and combine all the ma 
terials afforded by geology, geography, 
physics, chronology, physiology, ethnology, 
archeology, philology, on America, with all 
the traditions of the Americans. 

3. Geology and physical geography indi 
cates the cradles and ancient settlements 
of mankind, the revolutions of nature, the 
places unfit for population, the means of 
access, probable route of colonies, &c. * 

4. America has an ancient geography pre 
vious to 149 2, which ought to be restored. 

5. The coincidence of names of nations 
and tribes, afford a comparitive concord 
ance, indicating ancient connections or 

6. The ancient American population, 
must have been derived from the nearest 
shores of Africa, Europe and Asia. The 
points where all the indications and tradi 
tions tend, are the Antilles, next Paria and 
Guyana in South America ; Anian or Tol- 
lan and Alaska in the N. W with Sucanun- 
ga or Greenland to the N. E. 


7. The philological solution of historical 
affinities, must be sought in the roots of 
the languages, their conformity or analo 
gies, the number of similar sounds, roots 
and words; which are susceptible of a 
mathematical calculation, and referable to 
the theory of probabilities. 

8. Many primitive nations in all parts of 
the earth, may thus be proved to have been 
akin or related. 

9. Noah s flood was nearly general ; but 
perhaps not universal. His ark or THBE 
was perhaps Thibet : and his 3 sons 3 na 
tions saved there. 

10. It has been proved that all the anti- 
diluvian patriarchs were Nations, their long 
ages being the duration of dynasties or 
states. This opinion may also be enter 
tained of many other ancient patriarchs or 
heads of tribes, every where, by the usual 
figure of personification. 

11. Peleg s flood was volcanic, not so 
general as Noah s. There may have been 
many successive cataclysms blended in this, 
as this has been often mistaken in date for 
Noah s 

12. The cradle of the Tulans or Mexican 
nations, must have been the Tulan of Asia, 
since Turan and Tartary. There are many 
places called Tula, all over the earth, indi 
cating settlements of Atlantes. 

13. The ancient chronology of America 
may be restored. Several dates given, a 
system proposed. 


14. All the races and complexions of 
mankind are found in America. 

15. America was known to the ancient 
nations, particularly the Atlantes, Pela 
gians, Phenicians, &c. 

16. Some highlands of America were 
not covered at Noah s flood, and might be 
come the azylums of men, animals, and 
vegetation, However, but few nations can 
be traced to these azylums in America. 

17. The ancient monuments of both 
Americas, are similar to the primitive 
monuments of Asia, Africa and Europe. 

18. The ancient inscriptions of America 
can be explained. A key may be found 
for all: some are evidently pelagic. 

19. The religions of the Americans, were 
similar to the primitive religions of the 
eastern hemisphere. 

20. The manners and customs, of the 
Americans, are very various, and form no 
peculiar test. 

21. Many American nations were highly 
civilized, besides the Mexicans and Peru 
vians: skilful in agriculture, and the arts, 
having cattle, colleges, &c. 

My reward for having ascertained and 
proved those facts, was to be denied the 
prize, and to have my manuscript mislaid 
or lost or stolen ! My historical researches 
ever since have continued to confirm nearly 
all these facts. (Note 1.) 

2. Documents and monuments. The 
historical titles and proofs, inscriptions, 


medals, coins, charters, &c., which are so 
common elsewhere, are but few as yet, in 
America, belonging to early times : most 
belong to modern history. 

There are some ancient inscriptions scat 
tered in South America ; but not yet pub 
lished. Molina speaks of one on a pyramid 
of Cuyo, which late travellers have not 
found. Those of Otolum near Palenque 
in Central America begin to excite great 
attention; and I have sought a key for 
them. (2) 

Ancient metalic coins and medals, really 
Americans, are exceedingly scarce: yet 
there are some in Central America. Seve 
ral medals, perhaps foreign and indicating 
a communication, have been found, but 
again lost or neglected ; few have been 
figured or explained. 

Implements, tools, sculptures, objects of 
arts, pottery, weapons, JLC. of the ancient 
Americans are found in all the museums ; 
but excite little attention, by not being 
concentrated, accumulated nor classified. 
Many fine specimens of arts have been 
melted, or broken and lost. The astronomi 
cal stones of the Mexicans and Muyzcas 
have been preserved ; but those of Peru 
and Central America are lost ; as well as 
that beautiful one of the Talegas of North 
America, a dodecagone, with 144 hiero 
glyphic signs, found in the Ohio, and once 
kept in a museum of Philadelphia. 

The ancient monuments of both Ame- 


ricas, are very numerous, indicating a dense 
population in places since become wild and 
desolate, as in North America, Guyana, 
Brazil, &c. They are most numerous in 
the central parts of both Americas, and 
lessen towards both ends. Yet they are 
met from lat. 45 N. to 45 S. They are 
very variable in different parts; by no 
means identic, indicating different builders 
or many degrees of civilization, from the 
rudest arts to the most refined : employing 
many materials, earth, clay, gravel, stone, 
wood, unbaked bricks ; being either irre 
gular cyclopian structures, or regular build 
ings of rough or cut stones, pizc or beaten 
clay, &c. 

. We do not know as yet one half of those 
in existence, and many have never been 
described nor figured. Yet they afford 
every where, one of the most evident and 
certain base of historical researches, con 
firming traditions, or revealing the seats of 
former empires, their civilization, &c. 
They consist chiefly in mounds, altars, 
tumuli or tombs, ruined cities, villages and 
forts, temples and dwellings ; but we find 
besides in various places, traces of ancient 
palaces, bridges, roads, causeways, canals, 
mines, dromes, baths, pyramids, towers, 
pillars, rocking stones, walls, wells, pits &c. 
They generally resemble the primitive 
monuments of the same kind, met with in 
the eastern hemisphere, from England and 
Ireland to Mauritania and Africa, extend- 


ing east to Lybia, Syria, Russia, Persia, 
Tartary, &,c. They have less resemblance 
with the monuments of Egypt, Greece, 
Rome, India and China ; yet some kinds 
somewhat assimilate. In fact, there are, 
throughout both Americas, three very dis 
tinct classes of monuments, indicating dis 
tinct arts and architecture. 

The first or rudest, assimilate nearly to 
those yet used by the rudest tribes in the 
north or in Brazil, Antilles, &c., indicating 
a similar barbarous state. 

The second or primitive, is known by 
using wood and earth instead of stones for 

The third or most refined, employed 
stones, often well cut as in Mexico, Central 
America, Peru, &c., and indicates arts 
nearly equal to those of Egypt and India. 

Besides such great monumental remains; 
there are lesser antiquities ; fragments of 
sculpture, statues, idols, painting, Mosaic, 
&c., either in metals, stones, pottery, beads, 
&c., found every where mixed with the 

But the most singular and dubious relics 
of antiquity, are subteraneous or in excava 
tions : these are in caves, mines, pits, &c.: 
while under ground are found trees, stumps, 
charcoal, ashes, shells, pavements, walls, 
houses, &c. that must have been buried by 
alluvions, diluvions or new formed soil. It 
has been surmised or ascertained that some 
may be antidiluvian : although those in 


deep alluvial soils, near streams, and con 
nected with graves, may have been buried 
by men, or fluvial inundations. Mummies, 
skeletons and bones, with human apparel 
and implements have been found in caves, 
evidently buried there by human means, 
and not by floods. Human remains are but 
seldom if ever connected with the organic 
remains of the soil and caves, even of the 
latest geological date. 

3. Geography, Maps, fyc. The knowl 
edge of the regions and localities inhabited 
by mankind, or where colonies are sent, 
empires founded, is needful to history, in 
order to understand and treat the events 
and migrations. The physical configura 
tion of the land, the climates, plains, moun 
tains and streams, have a great influence 
on civilization and communications. Physi 
cal geography is constant and invariable: 
while civil or ethnographical geography is 
constantly fluctuating in limits and names. 

If we had complete series of maps by 
chronological order upon America; we 
should find therein the materials for a com 
parative historical geography, and succes 
sive ethnography, showing the gradual revo 
lutions of mankind. The old maps of 
America, those of Laet, the old geogra 
phers &c. are very valuable for this object. 
Many travellers in America, have given 
original maps, which furnish similar mate 
rials. I have chiefly used for Peru and 
Austral America, the maps of Laet, Aca- 


rete, D Anville, Molina, Falkner, Cochranc, 
Wedel. the Jesuits, &c. Among the modern 
general maps, relating to South America, 
the Spanish maps of 1810 and 182*2, the 
English of 1815, the French of 1830, the 
latest American of Tanner, &c. By those 
materials I have heen able to trace and fix 
four periods of American geography, 2 an 
cient and 2 modern. 

I. Primitive geography of America. 

II. Ancient ditto, or between 1400 and 

III. Modern colonial geography. 

IV. Modern independent geography. 

I have formed Mpt. maps of the two 
first periods, which shall be published grad 
ually, or in my Illustrations of the Ancient 
Geography of America. We have thou 
sands of maps on the early geography of 
the Eastern Hemisphere, and no one as yet 
on the Western Hemisphere ! to show the 
respective limits and positions of Ancient 
Empires, Nations, Cities, &c., except Clavi- 
gero s map of Anahuac at the Spanish 
conquest, those of Hayti, Laet, &c. 

We have the plans of Ancient Mexico 
and Cuzco; but lack those of Tiahuanaco, 
Otolum, and many more important for an 
cient history. Several plans of ancient 
sites of civilization have been given, along 
with those of monuments. I have many 
in Mpt. yet unpublished. The greatest 
part of modern cities, are built on ancient 
sites, from Mexico to Chili. In North 


America, the same happens with Cincinnati, 
Louisville, Pittsburg, St. Louis, Philadel 
phia, Savannah, &c. The views of ruined 
cities, and those of actual cities, are partly 
historical, connected with the knowledge 
of gradual American civilization. 

Many ancient names of islands, lakes, 
streams and mountains, are preserved in 
actual names. Such are Cuba, Hayti 
Ontario, Erie, Titicaca Ohio, Alatamaha, 
Maranon, Parana, Rivers. Alleghanies, 
Andes, Parima, Mountains, &c. When 
the names have been changed, it is the duty 
of the historical geographer to compare 
the old and new names. 

The Mexicans and other civilized ancient 
nations, could draw and paint maps. Even 
our North American tribes can draw rude 
maps on skins or bark. Some of these are 
preserved in museums; but none have ever 
been published : although some are pretty 
correct and deserving it. 

4. Natural Sciences. They are now 
becoming sisters of history. Geology is 
connected with geography. Botany and 
Zoology, acquaint us with trees, plants and 
animals, which were used in the arts and 
agriculture at different periods. The Asi 
atic origine of maize, called maza by He- 
siod and known to the Pelagians (Hughes 
Greece,) has been unperceived by Hum- 
boldt and many others, although it throws 
some light on the early migrations and 


communications of tribes. Maize was cul 
tivated in Assyria, West Tartary, North 
Africa and Java, before 1492, as asserted 
by Marco Polo, Crawford, Raffles. Gebe- 
lin, &c. (3) 

America had anciently several cereal 
plants, besides maize, two kinds of indi 
genous wheat and barley in Chili. The 
Quinoa and Zizania, the rice of South and 
North America. Many roots, beans, seeds, 
fruits and flowers, were cultivated from 
Canada to Chili. Native dies were abund 
ant, the indigo and annato were natives. 
Red and yellow cochineal were nursed and 
collected. Many peculiar kinds of cotton, 
silks, hemp, flax, agave, palm, &c, were 
cultivated or collected to use for cloths, 
threads, ropes, &c. 

Paleontology, a new science, seeks for 
the remains of animals dwelling on earth, 
before mankind. America has already 
afforded the huge mastodons, elephants, 
megatherium, megalonyx, as primitive land 
animals, arid many large reptiles, crocodiles 
of streams and lakes. 

American Zoology is very peculiar: a 
few arctic quadrupeds, birds and insects ex- 
cepted ; all the animals of this hemisphere 
are peculiar to it. Reptiles almost entirely 
such, even in the North. All the American 
monkeys form distinct species. The tropi 
cal animals of the two hemispheres are 
distinct, even often in genera. Out of 33 


quadrupeds formerly domesticated in Amer 
ica, the dog only may be deemed a stranger: 
and it had even many American varieties. 

The domestic quadrupeds of ancient 
America were 33, while only 25 in Asia, 
Africa and Europe. Among them were 4 
species of Vicunia, 4 of Agutis, 2 deer, 
2 hogs, 10 monkeys, &c. See my disserta 
tion on the domestic animals of both hem 
ispheres, 1832. Americans had also tamed 
32 birds or fowls, as many as Asia, &c., and 
even some reptiles, fishes, insects, &c., had 
become domestic: altogether 112 in Amer 
ica and only 80 in Europe, Asia, &c., before 

American botany offers many peculiar 
regions ; in the North only, akin to Asiatic 
or European botany ; but becoming quite 
distinct in the tropics, still more so in Aus 
tral America. Since 1492 the European 
colonists have brought many plants, that 
are become spontaneous from Canada to 
Chili: these must be carefully separated 
from the ancient indigenous plants. 

The A meriean Floras are nearly as many 
as the 15 natural regions already indicated, 
each having a focal seat or cradle in some 
range of mountains. They become richer 
or more abundant in species within the 
tropics, decreasing to the North and South. 
Trees and palm abound there, and disap 
pear near the poles, the palms are unknown 
beyond the 36 dgerees North and South. 
The equator has 500 species of trees , in 

54 MATEttlAL*. 

latitude 40 N. and S. only 100 kinds are 
found, or even less. Social plants arid 
grasses abound in plains, and in the North 
dwindle to mosses and lichens. 

Trees were early tools of civilization, 
affording timber, fuel, dies, houses, boats, 
weapons, &c. Fruit trees afforded food in 
abundance : even the tribes of North Amer 
ica near latitude 40 d. had 40 kinds of na 
tive wild fruits, and had begun to plant 
orchards of plumbtrees, peachtrees, crab- 
4rees, nut-trees. They knew how to make 
oils of nuts, to dry the fruits, make sugars 
out of maples and other trees. 

Fish has always afforded an ample sup 
ply of food to early nations, whence the 
preference to dwell near streams, Lakes 
and shores. Notwithstanding the swimming 
rambles of fishes, it is only the pelagic or 
oceanic tribes of them that are common to 
both hemispheres. Most of the resident 
shore fishes of America are peculiar species. 
Still more so with lacustral and fiuviatile 
fishes. These are divided into peculiar 
regions. Our northern lakes form one ; ami 
almost every large stream has a peculiar 
generation of finny tribes : such are the 
Mississippi, Maranon, Parana, the Atlantic 
streams and rivers, those of Brazil, &c. 

Minerals abound in both Americas. It 
was gold and silver that drew hither the 
greedy Spanish freebooters. The civilized 
nations knew mining, smelting, casting and 
forging. They used gold* silver, copper, 


brass, lead, &c.; collected and prized gems, 
emeralds, agats, volcanic glass, &c. Even 
the less civilized tribes of North America 
used copper and lead, clays for pipes, pot 
tery, &c. Iron was scarce because so hard 
to melt, and highly prized ; but iron-rings 
have been found as jewels around the wrists 
of skeletons. 

Metalic coins were little known except 
in Central America ; but bits of silver, gold, 
tin, iron, were used as such. The other 
mediums of exchange were skins, mats, 
nuts, cacao, shells, beads, mosaic works, 
,c. Commerce was well known to many 
nations; traders went 500 miles to exchange 
commodities in Florida, Mexico, Yucatan, 
Peru, &c. Navigators went by sea for the 
same purpose all over the Antilles, coast 
of Peru, and in the great streams. It is 
thus that were found many strange and 
foreign objects, jewels, medals, metals, &c., 
all over America, and in early tombs. 

5. Ethnography. This new science 
which undertakes to describe nations, 
reckons already many peculiar branches. 
Anthropography or the knowledge of phy 
sical mankind. Philology or the compara 
tive study cf human speech and languages. 
Besides the nameless branch attending to 
the moral ideas, arts, institutions, manners, 
civilization, governments and religions of 
mankind; which might be called moral 

All these studies become the philosophy 


of history, and shall duly command my 
attention. Some writers neglect them 
altogether ; others, like Robertson, do not 
know how to collect and accumulate facts 
instead of systems: Rollin has shown in 
his Ancient History, how useful moral 
ethnography may be as an auxiliary: al 
though he omitted philology and physical 

I have studied the men of all the parts 
of the world, in order to know and com 
pare them, better than had been done. 
All the errors on the histories of nations, 
proceed commonly from the slender or 
partial views acquired or admitted by the 
writers. There is much to glean on the 
ethnography of modern nations, and there 
from we may ascend to ancient ethnogra 
phy. It would be needful to study well the 
physical and moral features of all ; the 
shapes of bodies, skulls, faces and limbs ; 
the complexions of the skin, hairs and eyes ; 
with the casual or permanent varieties. 

But, above all, we must better study all 
the spoken languages and dialects. It is 
strange that we hardly know r anything, and 
sometimes nothing at all, on the languages 
of many existing tribes, with whom we have 
intercourse in both Americas. It would 
be desirable to procure at least a vocabu 
lary of 100 essential words, in each. Such 
words, including the cardinal numbers, will 
goon become the key of ethnographical 
philology. While the additional study of 


phonology or sounds of languages, their 
idioms and grammars, their roots, and 
verbs, the alphabets, glyphs and symbols 
used to communicate ideas, will combine 
to furnish the complete knowledge of phi 
lology as a separate science. Although 
I have not always carried so far my re 
searches; I did so for a few, applying 
chiefly myself to the essential features of 
languages ; and the unexpected results will 
be surprising. 

American anthropography will teach 
that there were men of all sizes, features 
and complexions, in this hemisphere be 
fore 1492 : notwithstanding the false asser 
tions of many writers, who take one nation 
for the whole American group. The 
Uskihs, the Puruays, the Farias, the Chons, 
&c. were as white as the Spaniards, 50 
such tribes were found in South America ; 
while many tribes of Choco, the Manabis, 
the Yaruras, &c., were as black as negroes. 
All the other shades of brown, tawny and 
coppery, were scattered every where. 
There was not a single red man in Ame 
rica, unless painted such. Some tribes 
had scanty beards as the Tartars, Chi 
nese, Berbers, &,c., others bushy beards. 
The Tinguis or Patagons were 7 or 8 feet 
high, and the Guaymas only 4 or 5 feet. 

6. Traditions and Annals. Many 
American nations preserve a memory of 
historical events by unwritten traditions, 
repeated from fathers to sons ; or commu- 


nicated orally by the priests, chiefs or 
elderly men. Many are preserved yet to 
this day, by frequent repetitions, being 
embodied in songs, hymns, maxims, tales, 
drawings, or even symbolic figures and 
signs. Many of those traditions are pre 
cious for history, notwithstanding the fa 
bles, allegories, metaphors, personifications, 
&/c., which partly conceal them or render 
the meaning obscure. We must learn to 
decipher them as we do old inscriptions 
and medals. 

Although many such are now nearly lost 
for us, by the extinction of the living books, 
who kept the remembrance : there are 
many already collected, and of which we 
ought to make a good use. But there are 
as many more, which have never been 
collected nor printed. I have collected 
many such in North America in manu 
script. It often happens that the American 
tribes will not communicate them to their 
foes or oppressors ; but their friends and 
allies may hope to receive the deposit of 
them. Every enlightened traveller ought 
to seek for them wherever he goes. Yet 
after being acquired, they are sometimes 
lost again, by neglect. I have known some 
learned and unlearned men despise them 
equally as Indian Stories, because they 
despise the ancient American race. There 
are, however, as yet many historical songs, 
poems and tales to collect among all the 
American tribes, which falling in good 


hands cannot fail to attract notice and be 
employed usefully. Every one who ne- 

flects or destroys them acts as a vandal, 
lalcolm has said at the outset of his his 
tory of Persia, that we ought never to 
neglect the original notions of a people on 
its origin, or early history, since therein is 
found the germ and spring of their subse 
quent conduct, actions and opinions. 

My illustrations shall contain many un 
published or forgotten traditions, whereof 
I shall avail myself in all my historical 
annals and researches. I consider those 
of the Uskihs, Dinriis, Ongwis, Linapis, 
Shawanis, Cados, Natchez, Ozages, Ata- 
kapas, Apalachians, &c., as highly import 
ant for the annals of North America. The 
same may be said of the Mexicans, Zapo- 
tecas, Mayas, Toltecas, Chols, &,c., for 
Central America. Of the Haytians, Cu 
bans and Caribs for the Antilles. And in 
South America those of the Muyzcas, 
Cumanans, Tamanacs, Popayans, Peru 
vians, Chilians, Brazilians, Abipons, &c. 

7. Chronology and Astronomy. These 
two sciences always go together, and form 
a double key of history. The American 
chronology is by no means fixed before 
1492, and requires a skillful hand to pre 
serve and compare all the heterogenous 
dates heretofore collected. I shall attempt 
to elucidate it gradually; but may often be 
compelled, as in geology, to relate only 
successive events without dates, and merely 


referred to a series of gradual facts. In 
Austral America, we are told that none 
had notions of astronomy and dates, except 
the Chilians ; yet their chronology begins 
only in 1450. I doubt this : I rather be 
lieve that their oral traditions have been 
neglected, as well as those of their neigh 

In Peru, there are many positive dates, 
yet I was the first to reduce them to chro 
nological order. In Brazil and Guyana, 
but few dates are found. The Muyzcas 
had very early dates, yet few have been 
preserved ; much obscured by personifica 
tions of dinasties, and Pietrahita begins 
their real annals only in 1490, or 45 years 
before the Spanish invasion. In the Antilles 
the dates are quite loose, and difficult to 
reduce even to a serial order. 

But in Central and Mexican America, 
we find many early dates with a regular 
chronology. Yet some are extravagant or 
contradictory. I shall endeavour to eluci 
date them, so as to reduce the whole to 
order. They must form the base of a 
regular American chronology, that ascends 
by dates to the flood and creation. In 
Yucatan the first regular date only reach 
to 940 after Christ. 

In North America, where the smallest 
number of dates existed; we have unex 
pectedly and quite lately, found that many 
ancient dates could be procured. Cusick 
has published those of the Ongwi traditions, 


and I have ascertained those of the Lina- 
pis. Both of which reach to the flood and 
creation, and afford series of available 
dates as early as 1600 years before our 
era ; thus nearly as ample as those of the 
TOL-tecas, and as plain in some instances. 

Astronomy was cultivated by all the civ 
ilized nations of ancient America. They 
had cycles of 144, 104, 60, 52, 20, 15 and 
13 solar years. Humboldt has well w r rit- 
ten on that subject ; but much remain to 
be gleaned. The northern tribes reckon 
by generations as the Greeks, the Polyne 
sians, &c., and by winters instead of years, 
moons instead of solar months. They had 
also a cycle of 60 years. In Central Ame 
rica, &c. the months were of 20 days, 
including 4 weeks of 5 days. But the Pe 
ruvians had months of 27 days, or 3 weeks 
of 9 days as the Etruscans. The Muyzcas 
small weeks of 3 days, &c. No where in 
ancient America, was found the sabatical 
week of days, based on the 7 planets and 
the 4 quarters of a lunation. This is re 
markable, as evincing a remote antiquity, 
and separation before this week was adopted 
in Egypt, India. Syria, Celtica, &c. 

Until 120 years before Christ the TOL- 
tecas reckoned only 365 days in the solar 
year, as the primitive nations of Asia : then 
they added the hours to the year. This 
forms their astronomical era. The Muyz 
cas had a very complicated astronomy, and 
three kinds of years. The usual was of 20 


moons ,and the ecclesiastical of 37 moons. 
The horal division unknown in many parts of 
America, was of 4 hours in the day for the 
Muyzcas and Mexicans, elsewhere of 5, 10 
and 20. The 24 hours and the Zodiac of 

12 signs with 360 degrees were not known. 
The Mexican Zodiac had 13 signs and 
104 degrees. 

Arithmetic is intimately connected with 
astronomy. A complete decimal numera 
tion was known to all the civilized Ameri 
can nations, and even to the northern tribes. 
The most rude tribes reckoned by 5 or the 
manual mode; there are traces abo of a 
binary numeration, the most simple of all : 
while others had complex calculations by 

13 and by 20 or scores. We find no trace 
of any by 7, and but slight indications of a 
ternary numeration by 3 and 9. All these 
American modes of reckoning may thus be 
reduced to the binary, by two or pairs ; 
and the quinary or manual by the five fin 
gers, of which the decimal is the double, 
and by 20 the quadruple. 

8. Languages. They are becoming one 
of the most important aids in history. When 
the annals are ample and clear, the exami 
nation of the languages is merely a sup 
plement to historical knowledge ; but when 
they are obscure, mutilated or totally lost ; 
languages then supply more or less to their 
defects or loss. Their comparative study 
furnish us new lights to ascertain the ori- 
gines, parentage, dispersions, colonies, alii- 


ances, wars, &/c., of the nations thus depriv 
ed of written annals or even traditions. 
They serve also to rectify the imperfect 
annals or the fabulous traditions. This 
study may lead besides to trace the man 
ners, religions, intercourse, arts and scien 
ces of nearly all nations ; since the proper 
languages of each people offers a picture 
of the civilization, acquired or borrowed 
knowledge, modes of life, &c. of each. 

It is above all in both Americas that this 
study is indispensable in historical resear 
ches : I will therefore apply to languages 
in all cases, and make constant use of them ; 
and they will unfold new facts quite un 
known, although very important, Histori 
cal lights shall thereby be thrown on many 
obscure subjects, whence astonishing and 
unexpected results may spring, in which I 
shall depend as much as upon mutilated and 
neglectful traditions. 

By taking into view all the American 
languages or as many as are already known, 
we shall easily dispel the errors and absurd 
systems of philosophers and philologists, 
who taking only a few as samples of the 
whole, have either deemed all the Ameri 
cans, as many Jews, or Tartars, or Atlan- 
tes, or sprung from the ground, and so on. 
Now the fact is that these writers have never 
taken the trouble to compare the numerous 
American languages and dialects, reduce 
them to groups, and seek their affinities 


Adelung and Vater had once stated with 
out proof, that nearly 1200 languages ex 
isted in America. Balbi has reduced them 
to 423, of which 212 in Sonth America; 
but they can be much further reduced, most 
of them being mere dialects. The whole 
may be comprised in 25 groups of langua 
ges, or even less; which were certainly 
identic in 25 languages 2 or 3000 years ago : 
and all of which have astonishing affinities 
with the groups of the eastern hemisphere, 
so as to indicate a parentage 4 or 5000 
years ago. 

Vater and Maltebrun have given a few 
hundred examples of such analogies : and 
the systematic writers have supposed that 
they had exhausted the comparisons. Yet 
a single language, the Chilian, has by itself 
more affinities with the languages of Europe, 
than all those mentioned by Vater and 
others, put together ! The foreign or trans 
atlantic affinities of American languages, 
vary from 10 to 70 per cent, according to 
the nations. If we suppose that there are 
400 languages in America, and as many in 
the eastern hemisphere, and each to have 
about 2000 roots or essential words only ; 
while the mean affinities are only 25 per 
cent : we shall find as many as 200,000 
affinities ! out of America, in every Amer 
ican language ; and in all the 400, as many 
as 80 millions ! instead of the paltry reck 
oning of 1000 or so. All this is suscepti- 


ble of mathematical proofs, and shall be 
unfolded gradually in these pages. 

The theory about the common exclusive 
grammatical structure of all the American 
languages, is equally erroneous and based 
upon partial facts. Instead of all the 
American languages being polysynthetic by 
amalgamating words, we find in America 
many mixt forms, and even the pure mono 
sylabic : while the amalgamation of words 
prevails more or less in Europe and Africa ; 
chiefly in the Bask, Italian dialects, Greek, 
Berber and other Atlantic dialects, the 
Negro languages, those of Caffraria, the 
Sanscrit and all the derived languages. 

It had been asserted that no American 
language was monosylabic : yet Balbi states 
that the Guarani and Maya are such ; Na- 
sera has lately proved the same of the 
Othomi. Thus we have at least 3 such 
American groups of languages. But there 
are more ; nay many American languages 
have monosylabic roots, even among the 
most amalgamated groups. 

The most obvious grammatical classifi 
cation of American languages, has escaped 
the acuteness of philologists. I find it in the 
epithetic structure, or relative position of 
ideas. Under this view all the languages 
arrange themselves in three great classes 
or groups. 1. Regular, 2. Resupinate, 
3. Mixt. 

1. The Regular is the most simple and 
natural form : where the roots or nouns are 


prefixed, and the adjuncts or adjectives, 
expressing epithetes or qualities follow or 
are added. This group includes in the 
Eastern Continent 1. All the Semetic lan 
guages, Arabic, Hebrew, &c. 2. All the 
Atlantic and Egyptian languages. 3. All 
the Celtic and Cantabrian languages. 4. 
All the Polynesian and Malay languages. 
5. The Bhotiya and many languages of 
Thibet. 6. Most of the INt-gro languages. 
7. Yakut of Siberia, &c. 

In America this group includes my groups 

1. Innuit or Uski. 2. Ongwi. 3. Capaha. 
4. Chactah. 5. All the languages related 
thereto in North-west America, the Ka- 
luchi, Mandan, &c. 6. All the Guarani 
languages of South America, and perhaps 
many others, Mayna, Mobima, &c. 

2. The Resupinate or Reflexed Group: 
where the roots or nouns substantive are 
reversed, following the adjective or epi 
thetes, which are prefixed. This second 
mode of uniting ideas prevails 1. In all the 
languages of China and Tartary. 2. In 
all the Teutonic languages German, Swede, 
English. 3. In most of the Thracian, Illy- 
rian, Greek and Slavonic languages. 4. 
In all the Turkish languages of Turan, 
Bokhara, Turkey. 5. The Newari of Ima- 
laya. 6. The Qua or Hottentot of South 

In America, it is the most pre vailing form , 
found in my groups 1. Linni or LinapiF. 

2. Otali or Cheroki. 3. In all the Mexi- 


can and Othomi languages. 4. Chontal. 
5. Skereh or Pani and Shoshoni, of North 
America, and in South America. 6. Chili. 
7. Yarura. 8. Mbaya and probably many 
more : although hardly indicated by the 

3. Mixt .Form, which employs or adopts 
more or less the two former modes ; although 
there is always a prevailing form, that in 
dicates the original mode of uniting ideas. 
This mixt form appears 1. In the Sanscrit 
and all derived languages. 2. In the Zend 
and Persian languages of Iran. 3. In the 
Pelagic arid Italic languages, the Latin, 
Italian, French, Spanish, Greek. 4. The 
Japanese, &c. 

, While in America it is found 1. In the 
Aruac languages. 2. The Muyzca. 3. The 
Peruvian languages, &c. of South Ameri 
ca, and in North America. 4. The Atalan. 
5, Mizteca. 6. Qpata, and probably some 

This comparative classification of lan 
guages, will greatly help future investiga 
tions. It will show the improbability of the 
two opposite mcdes of annexing ideas hav 
ing been entertained by the same people at 
any time ; while the mixt form evinces amal 
gamations of ancient nations. We have 
thus acquired another clue to trace primi 
tive connections, another available mean 
to pursue the human steps on earth. 

9. Religions and Mythologies. The 
human opinions on the past and future form 


every where ample themes of thoughts and 
actions. From revelations, inspirations, 
oracles, wisdom and priestcraft comingled, 
have arisen all the worships, and rites, dog 
mas and creeds, swaying the human mind, 
through hope or fear, love or hatred. The 
history of religious ideas, is in fact the his 
tory of civilization, since they have sprung 
together in social men. Nearly all the re 
ligions of Asia (which from hence have 
spread throughout the earth along with 
mankind) were found in America: except 
the modern creeds. But the traces of Ju 
daism and Budhism were very faint and 
local. Mahometism was unknown, Bra 
in inism hardly known. Christianity or some 
of its rites are traced to Yucatan only, and 
may arise from other sources. The most 
prevailing worships were the primitive Sa- 
heism, Solar worship, Polytheism, Dualism 
or Manicheism, Shamanism or worship of 
Spirits, Idolatry, and Fetichism or animal 
worship. We find throughout America 
many modifications of these creeds : with 
several complex mythologies, more or less 
analogous to eastern dogmas. 

The investigation of these American re 
ligions affords not only an insight into the 
ancient civilization, but many proofs of an 
cient communications with Asia or Africa. 
Throughout North America the Dualism, 
mythologies and fabulous traditions point to 
a connexion with Tartary. In Florida, 
Mexico and Yucatan, begin to appear the 


Solar worship, and a cruel idolatry foreign 
to it. This Solar worship appears in a 
purer form in North America, as far as Peru. 
While in the Antilles, Guyana, Brazil and 
Chili, prevailed several worships of heaven 
ly and terrestial spirits ; somewhat akin to 
the primitive idolatry of Africa, Europe, 
Iran, India, China and Polynesia. 

American religions admitted, like many 
others, of Priests, oracles, temples, shrines, 
pilgrimages, holy places, sacrifices, expia 
tions, confessions, offerings, hymns, venera 
tion for animals, men and stars. Idols 
painted or sculptured in wood, pottery, 
stone, metals, &c.; bloody rites by human 
sacrifices, scarifications, circumscision, &c. 
But none of these practices were general, 
some were quite local and circumscribed. 
Thus circumscision was only used by the 
Mayas of Yucatan, the Calchaquis of Tu- 
cuman, &c. Traces of a triple god or 
Indian Trimurti have been met from Ohio 
to Peru ; but it was no where the prevailing 
religion. As the same idea was found 
among the Celts and Polynesians, it may 
have come by the east rather than Polyne 
sia in the west. 

10. Civilization and Manners. This 
completes the history of all nations. When 
their annals are well known, it becomes a 
very proper appendix to them; when they 
are not, it is a very needful supplement to 
the traditions, &c. But we must not make 
any history consist merely in such an ac- 


count, as often done by negligent writers. 
The manners and customs of every people, 
are so fluctuating, liable to be changed, or 
improved by civilization, imitation, arts and 
sciences, &c.; that they cannot afford any 
test of connections. They are often bor 
rowed, from neighbors or strangers, disused 
after awhile by whims or wars, invented to 
suit the climate and productions it may 
afford. We have positive proofs that the 
Europeans have since 1492 greatly modified 
the customs of all the tribes they conquered 
or visited. This must have happened for 
merly also, by other visits or communica 
tions. Yet, notwithstanding the uncertainty 
of the origin and duration of the primitive 
American customs, they must be studied, 
as one of the sources and objects of history. 

We find, in ancient America, nearly all 
the forms of social civilization and manners 
of the east. But the Nomadic life with 
camels, oxen and sheep, was unknown, as 
well as those animals. The American 
cattle or lamas, &c. of South America, 
hogs of Coriana, dogs and rabbits of 
Mexico, deers of Florida, buffalos of Taos, 
were kept by sedentary civilized tribes. 
The Nomadic wandering tribes of America 
w r ere chiefly hunters and fishermen : scat 
tered around the agricultural nations, 
spreading from Canada to Chili. 

All the kinds of governments were known 
in America: Theocracy, despotism, mo 
narchy, oligarchy, and democracy. But 


the most prevailing were theocracy among 
the civilized nations, oligarchy among the 
barbarous nations: with two peculiar mo- 
dificaVons, of double kings as among Arabs, 
civil and military; and chiefs of families 
or tribes, as among all primitive nations. 
Queens were known to but few tribes, al 
though the female line w r as often hereditary. 
Written laws and codes were known to the 
Tol-tecas, Mexicans, Mayans, Muyzcas, 
Panos, Peruvians, &c. Oral laws were 
elsewhere preserved by priests or magis 

Polygamy prevailed among some tribes 
or castes, but was not universal. The 4 
castes of Indians are distinctly found in 
nearly all the civilized nations, often modi 
fied into priests, nobles, vassals and slaves. 
The arts of music, medicine, smithery, 
painting, sculpture, architecture, agricul 
ture, pottery, &c., were well known to 
nearly all. The sciences of geometry, 
geography, botany, astronomy, &c., were 
cultivated from Mexico to Peru, even 
taught in schools and colleges ; with the 
arts, the laws, the rites, and history of the 

Marsden has well distinguished several 
degrees of civilization in Asia. If no Ame 
rican nation had reached the Greeks and 
Romans, or our modern polished and im 
proved civilization ; it is not extraordinary. 
But the Peruvians, Muyzcas, Tol-tecas, 
Mexicans, Talascas, &c., were nearly 


equal to the Chinese, Egyptians and Hin 
dus in civilization; not far removed from 
the European civilization of the 15th cen 
tury : nay, in some things superior. The 
second degree of American civilization 
found in Chili, Florida, Cumana, the An 
tilles, Popayan, the Linapis, Omaguas &c. 
was equal to that of the Arabs, Malays, 
Celts, Cantabrians, Pelagians, &c. While 
the third degree found in all the barbarous 
nations, Innuit or Esquimaux, Shoshonis, 
Caribs, Brazilians, &c. was not worse 
than what we find among the Fins, Lap 
landers, Tartars, Sames, Negroes and 

Individual property in land was almost 
unknown in America; but feodal and tribal 
property well understood. Common pro 
perty of tribes and villages over their ter 
ritories, was the most usual tenure, modified 
by wars, conquests, tributes. Individual 
property existed only for tenements and 
personal property. Warfares, marriages 
and funerals were very different in every 
nation. The weapons of war were clubs, 
arrows, darts, lances, axes, Macana swords, 
Sarbacanes or blowing tubes, slings, nooses, 
thronged balls, &c. as elsewhere. There 
was a peculiar diplomacy, with heralds, 
envoys, messengers. Shields, towers, forts, 
walls, ditches, were used for defence, be 
sides Estopils a peculiar quilted armor. 
Flags, banners, and standards were known. 
The calumets, leaves or green feathers, 


council fires, arid white flags were emblems 
of peace. Alliances and confederations 
existed from earliest times, also the adop 
tion of tribes and prisoners. Slavery was 
hardly known; but vassalage much ex 
tended over conquered tribes. 

Dresses and ornaments were quite va 
rious. Seal skins used by the Innuit. 
Deer skins and furs by the tribes of North 
America. In tropical America many 
tribes went nearly naked, with a mere 
apron or pagne of cotton or grass cloth. 
But the civilized nations were decently 
clothed with cotton shirts and feather man 
tles. The Poncho is a true American 
dress known from Mexico to Chili, hardly 
known out of America except Polynesia. (4) 

Women wore long pagnes or gowns. 
They made cloths of lama wool in Peru; 
of cotton, hemp, nettles, grass, feathers &c. 
there and elsewhere ; either twisted, plait 
ed or woven. The Peruvians and Chilians 
had a peculiar loom and plough. Cotton 
looms were used in Florida, Mexico, and 
all over South America, even by the Ca- 
ribs to make hamacs or hanging beds. 
Among some nations women had the most 
labor to perform ; yet even the men as 
sumed hunting, making canoes, huts, wea 
pons, &c. More civilized tribes worked 
together in the fields : The proud and war 
like employed vassals or slaves. 

Painting the body or face, was usual 
among many nations, but not general. It 


was useful against heat and flies, or was 
used to inspire love or terror. Ornaments 
to the head, ears, nose, lips, wrists, legs r 
&c., were more or less adopted by men 
and women. The hair was usually worn 
long ; but many tribes cut it in various 
ways, as a crown or tuft. The beard even 
when scanty was deemed unbecoming by 
many tribes, and totally eradicated ; but 
some tribes wore beards. The head was 
often left uncovered ; but hats were worn 
in the N. W. and Central America, tur 
bans in Paria and Florida, feather crowns 
in the tropics, Lautas or diadem-bands in 
Peru and the Andes. Shoes and gloves 
were unknown; but sandals, leggings, lea 
ther clods, and mocassins or slippers of 
various substances, commonly used ; with 
singular snow shoes of bark in winter by 
northern tribes. 



1. In 1824, 1 published my first essay 
on American history, a pamphlet on the 
Ancient History of Kentucky , or Central 
North America, before 1770. Although 
it was a mere rude sketch, it contains 
many important historical facts. I was 
too little advanced then in philological 
studies, to give it their support, and many 
of my surmises must be rectified by it. 
My late researches have also greatly im 
paired the general belief of the Tartarian 

NOTES. 75 

origin, and western route of the Mexican 

2. I published this presumed key in 
1832 in my Atlantic Journal; but many 
accurate comparisons are yet required to 
confirm my surmises, although the Lybian 
analogies are evident. 

3. In Hughes Travels in Sicily, Greece 
and Albania in 1813--14, published 1820, 
we find this fact about Hesiod s mention of 
maize, used by the poor in mush and cakes 
by the early Greeks : the modern Greeks 
call it Arabo-site, Arabic corn, in Italy it 
is called Grano-turco, or Turkish-corn: 
having reached Greece and Italy through 
the Arabs, and not from America. It has 
been cultivated in Java, Central Africa, 
Soudan, &c. from time immemorial, having 
native names in the Negro languages. Ge- 
belin thinks it was known in Assyria. Polo 
found it in Tartary in the 13th century. 
Frazer lately saw it almost wild in the 
Imalaya mts. : it has never been found 
quite wild in America. 

4. The Poncho is a long strip of cloth, 
with a hole in the middle for the head, the 
ends hanging before and behind, often fas 
tened on the sides. It was used by the 
ancient Mexicans, the Muyzcas, Peruvians 
and Chilians. It has been adopted as quite 
convenient by the Spanish colonists, and 
is very becoming when ornamented. 


tions on the Periods of American Ge- 
ogony, Ontogeny, Floods, and ancient 
population tyc. of both Americas. 

History does not merely consist in accu 
mulating facts: these constitute the annals 
of empires ; but the real philosophical his 
tory has a nobler aim. It seeks results, 
teaches lessons of wisdom, brands with in 
famy the foes of mankind, and inspires 
veneration for the benefactors of the human 
race. It presents examples worthy to be 
followed, and records the crimes to be 

The several departments of history that 
are distinguished as biography, civil and 
ecclesiastical annals, moral and physical 
surveys of mankind, comparative philology, 
archeology, chronology, mythology, &e. 
All combine to instruct and amuse, to record 
the past and present, and to lead to better 
future actions, an improved social order. 
The nations often forget the wise lessons of 
time and experience ; but they are continu 
ally recalled to memory and view by the 
historians, who seek the truth, and setting 
aside the sway of human passions or na 
tional prejudices, present the faithful mirror 
of history to the eyes of posterity. 

Such is my aim. American history has 


been so much despised or perverted, that 
few lessons, have been drawn from it: yet 
it affords ample scope for reflection, study 
and admiration. Nearly one half of the 
habitable globe, during all the past ages, 
cannot fail to offer a variety of subjects, to 
draw the attention of philosophy, wisdom 
and philanthropy : that mutual benevo 
lence of mankind, which ought ever to be 
felt ; but is so often discarded or forgotten 
through the contrary tendencies of pride, 
lust, cupidity, and all the baneful passions. 

The connections of historical facts with 
all the sciences, afford another useful theme ; 
that may vastly increase our comparative 
knowledge : much of it has arisen, besides 
observation, from accurate comparison, 
analysis and generalization, which combine 
to give results, enlarging the field and 
sphere of human knowledge, in all its 

If we go back, by the help of geology, to 
the most remote periods of existence and 
life in this hemisphere, we find it like the 
remainder of the globe, immersed under 
the Ocean. There, in the depths of the 
briny waves, the actual rocks now support 
ing the dry soil, were formed and matured : 
superposed and intermingled by aquatic and 
volcanic phenomena and cataclysms, if not 
by superadded aerial depositions. Then 
were formed the primitive strata of Amer 
ica, ere life had begun to vivify the waters ; 
then were cast the Porphyries, Granites, 


Shales, Basalts, and other primitive or vol 
canic rocks, that are now chiefly found in 
Boreal and Western America, the Andes, 
Mts. Parima, and Brazil, the Austral and 
Boreal Islands, Hayti and the Antilles. 
This was the first period of terrestial Cre- 

After this period of unknown length, be 
gan the epocha of aquatic life ; when the 
breath of GOD, moving on the waters, gave 
life and motion to organized aquatic beings; 
1. Plants and Fucites, 2. Spongites and Al- 
cyonites, 3. Polyps and corals, 4. Worms 
and radials, 5. Sluggs and shells, G. Mol- 
lusca and Cephalopodes, 7. Trilobites and 
Crustacites . . . All incipient vegetating 
beings, or inferior unbony animals, gradu 
ally evolved and born in the waters of the 
Sea. . . . Followed by the more perfect 
vertebrated aquatic animals, 8. Fishes and 
Sharks, 9. Snakes and reptiles ; lastly, 10. 
Seals and whales. Some of which require 
shallow water, to dwell and breed . . This 
was the second period of American Crea 
tion: Aquatic life. 

The third epocha is that of the destruc 
tion of aquatic life, by cataclysms and de 
positions, submarine volcanic cavernous 
eruptions or other causes, throwing sudden 
ly in a soft, sandy or muddy state, the sub 
stances that have formed the secondary 
mountains or strata of psamites, argillites, 
calcarites, carbonites, &c., that over 
whelmed the aquatic tribes in their way ; 


which becoming therein entombed as living 
medals of this globe, declare to us these 
mighty successive cataclysms or floods of 
sand, clay, lime and coal ; now met in vast 
regions, the Alleghanies and Central North 
America, Florida and the Bahama Islands; 
the hills and plains of Brazil, Chili, East 
Peru, and Central Maragnon. . . . This 
was the second period of terrestial forma 
tion in America, the third of successive 
eventful periods. 

The fourth must have been the rise of 
the land above the waters, if not already 
partly begun. The epocha of terrestrial 
upheaving and distortion of strata, by an 
awful inward force ; either volcanic, or ca 
lorific, or of growing crystalization ; form 
ing mountains and islands, raising them 
above the Ocean ; to become the nucleus 
of future Continents. The American hem 
isphere had then probably two great islands, 
in the North and South, with many smaller 
islands between them, in the tropical sea : 
the Alleghany land Atlantis forming two 
others in the east, and many others stud 
ding the two polar regions. The insulated 
mountain tract between Lake Nicaragua 
and the long valley of Choco, must then 
have formed another Island of the Antilles. 
Guyana or Parima was also another large 
island : while Brazil was a vast peninsula 
attached to the Andes. I have endeavor 
ed to express this first configuration of 
America in my two maps of North and 


South America ; when the Ocean was yet 
about 500 feet higher than it is actually. 
Whether this cataclysm was contempora 
neous throughout, or by successive throes 
must be ascertained by Geogony. . . This 
was the fourth period of terrestrial events 
in this hemisphere ; but the first of terres 
trial separate existence. 

When the dry land had appeared, the 
creative power of GOD exerted upon the 
virgin mould of the mountains, drew forth 
into life, Plants and Flowers, Trees and 
Palms, ; with the successive terrestrial ani 
mals, 1. Worms and Slugs, 2. Insects and 
Spiders, 3, Snakes and Reptiles, 4. Birds 
and Fowls, 5. Beasts and Bats. Streams 
began to flow, valleys were excavated in 
the soft or yielding strata by heavy tides 
and powerful streams : then the fishes of 
the sea ascended the rivers, and filled the 
streams and lakes. A few shell and other 
aquatic animals sent also colonies into fresh 
waters. . . . This was the fifth period of 
terrestrial events ; that of terrestrial life. 

Meantime the land was continuing to 
rise, or the ocean to sink ; the dry soil was 
extending : land volcanoes began to appear 
in the Andes and elsewhere, overwhelming 
some living tribes. The carbonic volca 
noes had new 7 paroxysms, slaty mud involv 
ed terrestrial plants and trees in successive 
eruptions : the clay mud or colored sand 
was forming tertiary strata on the shores, 
involving sea animals, shells, reptiles and 


fishes. . . This was the sixth period of ter 
restrial events, that of land volcanoes. 

After all these ; mankind was created 
by GOD, and appeared as lord of the earth, 
and the complement of living creation. . . 
This may be deemed another Period, if we 
like ; although it was but the complement of 
the terrestrial living productions, begun in 
the 5th, and probably proceeding in the 6th. 
Where the first man or men appeared and 
dwelt, is unknown or very dubious. Asia 
is commonly deemed the first dwelling of 
mankind, and Central Asia or Thibet the 
cradle of our race : although China, India, 
Arabia, Syria, Ceylon, &>c., claim the same 
honor. But few authors have placed this 
cradle in America, and even then not for 
the Adamites. Yet America had some 
inhabitants before the flood, if we are to 
believe the concurrent traditions of many 
American nations ; who keep the memory 
of it, and point to their refuges. (1) 

Of these American Anti-diluvians we 
know little or nothing : their traces are few 
and uncertain. It would be otherwise if 
we could identify them with the anti-dim^ 
vian Atlantes, or find their diluvial re 
mains. The skeletons found in Guadaloupe, 
and on R. Santas of Brazil, by Captain 
Elliott (described by Meigs in the trans 
actions of American philosophical society 
1827) in tuffa with shells, may have been 
buried there ; like the mummies of many 
American caves, Some of the American, 


mounds have appeared anti-diluvian ; but 
the fact is not well proved. The subterra 
nean antiquities are also of an equivocal 
character. The town of log houses lately 
found in Georgia, buried under golden clys- 
mian soil, cannot be so remote ; the soil 
instead of diluvial, may be a deep alluvial. 
All the facts on these remote times, shall 
be hereafter collected, presented and ex 
amined carefully. 

Thus, has been presented by geological 
results, a rapid sketch of the American 
periods, t6 the birth of mankind. These 
6 periods or yums, are well ascertained as 
to succession; but their duration is un 
known : and each of them includes several 
subordinate periods ; which it is not needful 
to investigate in these outlines. The works 
on geology may be consulted if required. 
These 6 yums or great periods do not 
answer exactly to the 6 yums or manifes 
tations of the mosaic cosmogony, since 
geogony begins only with the 3d, ending 
with the 5th. 

Such oriental accounts are always de 
serving our attention, and susceptible of 
the deepest philosophical commentary, as 
they mainly agree with all the detected 
facts. But there are at least 3 accounts 
of the creation or cosmogony in the Sepher 
or Hebrew Bible. 1. That of Job. 2. Of 
Moses in chapter 2d of Genesis from verse 
4 to 25 ; in both, no yums, days nor periods 
are mentioned. 3. The usual mosaic ac- 


count of chapter 1st. ending only at ch. 2, 
v. 3. Even in this usual account more 
than 7 periods can be found, including 
heaven, earth and men. 

These are the real Mosaic periods, with 
his own names, very different from the sub 
sequent Jewish names, in various dialects. 

SHITH Real beginning or Real Supreme 
Being producing ALEIM the Angels, SHMIM 
Heavens, and ARTZ Earth. 

2. YUM. THEU-UBEU Chaos, and 
THEUM Abyss, with RUH Spirit of God. 

3. YUM. AUR Essence of celestial light 
or Ether. First divine manifestation of 
Mshe or Moses. 

4. YUM. RKIO Expanse or sky, diver 
sion of aerial and celestial fluids. 2d. 

5. YUM. Sea and dry land, upheaving 
of land over the waters, or subsiding of the 
ocean. Vegetation. 3d. 

6. YUM. Sun and Moon appearance by 
a change in the misty atmosphere ? with 
XUXBIM stars? 4th. 

7. YUM. Fishes and Fowls, &c. 5th. 

8. YUM. Beasts and cattle, with ADM 
mankind or human emanation, our Adam, 
ZXR male, and NKBE female. 6th. 

9. YUM. Shbioi seventh manifestation, 
Aleim became IEUE Jehovah, the living- 
self-with-self, the supreme or powerful self. 

10. YUM. AD emanation, our mist. 

11. YUM. ADM into GN or Gan. our 

84 ... e . CATACLYSMS: 

12. YUM. OTZ Growth, of lives with 
good and evil. 

13. YUM. NER 4 flowing emanations 
or streams. 

14. YUM. ASHE Intellectual man- 
mate, called afterwards EUA living exist 
ence, our Eve. Self-with-life. 

All these periods should require long 
comments, and discussions, rather physical 
than historical. It is by no means certain 
that the sun and moon are implied in the 6th 
yum. The text says a couple of MARTH 
Centralities EMAUR-GDL and EMAUR- 
KTN Self-great-ether greatest and lesser. 
Some have seen here the solar and lunar 
dynasties of Asia. The XUX-BIM might 
be the XRUBIM of later times. The real 
sun and moon may belong to the yum of 
AUR. The stars, according to Job, were 
in existence before the foundation of the 
earth, and our astronomy teaches this 

In this cosmogony, the heavenly creation 
takes 4 periods. The grass grows by light 
before the sun had appeared through the 
misty atmosphere, and the fishes come after 
the land and herbs, at the same period with 
fowls. Our actual geology does not con 
firm this last fact ; but a proper explana 
tion of the biblic words would confirm the 
truth. (2) 

Many still consider AISH intellectual 
man as the human race, previous to Adam, 
father of the Adamites; but the concurrent 


proofs are very slender : nor is their pos 
terity known ; unless Nahash or the snakes, 
Elohim or the sons of God, the Rephains 
or giants, and the Nephilim or apostates, 
be considered as such. Indications of races 
of men different from the Adamites may be 
collected both in the Bible, and in all the 
ancient annals of China, India, Iran, &c. ; 
but no positive connected account has ever 
been made out as yet. 

The Nahash, Hareth or Satan of the 
Bible, is identic with the Nagas (snakes) 
of the Hindus, the Zabul and Dives, (de 
vils) of Iran, evidently men, and foes of the 
Adamites: they are also the U-long or 
antidiluvian dragons of China. In Ame 
rica the satanic notions will be seen in the 
respective account of religions. They 
often assume in this hemisphere the ap 
pearance of volcanic ideas, or of a vampire 
malignant being. But the nations of the 
Linapi group connect the ideas of devils, 
snakes arid foes, all called Ako or JSPakho 
very similar with Nahash and Nagas. 
They assert that they were created by the 
Evil Spirit, were always foes of real men ; 
that they caused the flood, and went after 
wards to America before the Strait of Beh- 
ring was formed. See Linapi Traditions. 

The ALEIM, Elohim or Egregori or 
angels of the Hebrew were instead sons of 
God, and Moses ascribes to them the crea 
tion of the earth ; while Job ascribes it to 
Eloah, the real God. Herder has said 


that we shall never understand well the 
mosaic history, until we ascertain who 
were these Elohim and Cherubim (3) 
dwelling on earth. My dissertation on 
anti-diluvian history may perhaps help to 
clear the matter ; meantime it may be 
stated that they appear to be the HO-LO 
of anti-diluvian Chinese history, or LO-LO 
of their post-diluvian annals. Perhaps also 
the celestial emperors beginning the history 
of China : the Alorus first dinasty of As 
syria before the flood : the ^dw^-ELOS and 
P EL of the Pelagians. Also the H ELLO 
(old men) of the Egyptians, the PELEI 
(old men or ancestors) of the ancient Illy- 
rians, the LAHI or ancient Thibetans. 

They may be the ELEI or ancient Per 
sians, the Peris or Pelts of Iran, ancient 
beneficent beings. The Arabs and all the 
Semetic nation have preserved that name 
for God, in EL, Allah, Baal, or made of 
it their universal article El, Al, meaning 
HE or the Being : whence also the Pela 
gic and Italic articles IL, L, LI, &c., the 
Spanish EL. By the frequent usual change 
of L into R, we have ER root found in 
many languages for men: forming the 
Her os of Greece, sons of God ; the HER 
or lords of the Germanic tribes, the Seres 
of Thibet or ancient Chinese, Ergaz men 
of the African Atlantes. ErJc man in Turk 
ish or Turan Atlantes, akin to Egregori ! 

In America these similar indications are 
widely spread, and among the most an- 


cient nations. EL means man in Tolteca 
and Mexican, OL is old and Yollo a spirit 
or angel. EL is son and tribe in Hayti, 
Elohi is land and spirit in Tzuluki. Yol 
means man in the Atakapa language of 
the Cado or Nachez group. Pele means 
the same in Lule of South America ; but 
Peli is soul in Chilian, which approximate 
to Pelcg and Lelex, ancient Pelagian 
tribes. The connections with TEL, TAL, 
TOL, pervade the whole of ancient Ame 
rica, and lead to assimilate with the TOL- 
tecas and TALAS, American Atlantes, 
the Tulans or Asiatic Atlantes, the Auto- 
Toles or African Atlantes. These lead to 
the giants of both hemispheres or ancient 
men of renown. But the subject must be 
postponed, and will be found resumed in 
the history of Austral and Central Ame 
rica, where these atlantes and giants are 

Returning from this digression ; we may 
resume the geological periods of America 
previous to mankind, in the" six successive 
epochas, already mentioned. 

1. Period. Primitive, aquatic and before 

2. Period of aquatic organic life. 

3. Period of aquatic cataclysms. 

4. Period of the dry land or islands. 

5. Period of terrestrial life. 

6. Period of terrestrial volcanoes. 
After which begins the human period, 

till the flood. The question whether man 


or men appeared together, or before or 
after, in both hemispheres; must be left 
undecided. Some writers have even placed 
Eden the GN of Moses in America and 
the Hesperidian Islands of old ; but as the 
Imalaya mountains, valleys and plains, are 
higher than the Andes, older in geological 
series, and more suitable for human life, 
not being volcanic : it is extremely proba 
ble that they were the cradle of mankind, 
rather than America. 

Yet men reached America before the 
flood, and were here at this eventful period. 
But we are ignorant of the precise way they 
came, and how they reached this land 
which was then only a group of large isl 
ands, unless North America was united to 
Asia by Behring Strait, as very probable. 
The clearest traditions point to the east, 
Africa and Europe then united at the 
Strait of Gibraltar, and the Island Atlantis 
as a stepping place. The Mexican tradi 
tions point to Asia, by two different opposite 
quarters, the east and the north west. The 
Uskis or Innuit nations are late comers by 
the north west. The Linapi nations, al 
though earlier, came the same way, and 
over the ice of Behring Strait, after its 
diruption. The Hongwis came the same 
way, although they boast of being Autoch- 
tones, as did the Greeks, which we know 
in both instances to be false. 

The Nachez nations say they came from 
the east. The Olmecas or earliest people 


of Anahuac point that way also ; although 
both speak of an American flood. The 
Haytians and Cubans were also of eastern 
origin, like all the Aruac nations ; but re 
membered the flood and parceling of the 
islands. The Carib nations appear postdilu- 
vians and the last come in South America ; 
yet the Tamanacs one of the group speak 
of an American flood. The Guarani call 
themselves eastern men, and came from 
Africa after the flood. It is in South 
America, the Andes of Chili, Peru, &c., 
that a positive memory was found of several 
floods and cataclysms, in or near the An 
des, which gave refuge to several tribes. 
Yet it is there also that the most obvious 
philological affinities are found with North 
Africa and the shores of the Mediteranean ; 
while many invasions of foreign later na 
tions are recorded, &c. 

All these antidiluvian notions, and ac 
counts of the American flood, will be care 
fully collected and given. This will form 
the first period of human history in America, 
extending to 2262 years at least, according 
to the computation of the 70; the most 
plausible of all. The Tol-tecas reckon 
nearly the same time between their period 
of creation and their main flood : or with 
trifling differences, less than the various 
terms of Josephus and others ; but various 
other calculations are found in Anahuac. 

Such a period of 23 centuries was cer 
tainly sufficient to people America, and fill 


it. The Cainites or Cabils have been deem 
ed parents of the Atlantes and Africans. 
They were skilful, powerful and wicked, 
inventing agriculture and arts, building 
cities &c.: while the Sethites invented astro 
nomy, letters and dwelt in tents. If the 
American Atlantes were antidiluvian, they 
must have sprung from the Atlantes Cain 
ites, KIN of Moses. 

In 1170 years after Adam, the Egregori 
angels of Mt. Ima, came to Mt. Herinon, 
in 20 tribes, under their king Semi-Azar, 
and uniting with the Cainites, gave birth to 
the Rephaim, Nephilim and Etiud, tribes 
of Giants, tyrants and Canibals : who made 
war on the angels and men. They are said 
in the Bible to have gone to 8heol (the 
lower world or South America) with their 
king Belial : where they were drowned by 
the flood. See Universal History. 

The Giants dwelt in Talo-tolo, the world 
Tolo of the Hindus, where we find the 
ToZ-tecas (Tol-people:) therefore America: 
called also Atala and once sunk in the 
waves ; like the Atlantis of the Greek, 
whose Atlantes were also Giants or power 
ful men. The Egregori have been deemed 
the Titans of the Greeks, and Atlas was a 
Titan. Although Gigantic Nations existed 
in America, the Talegas, Toltecas, Caribs, 
Chilians, &c. being often such : the term 
Giant must always be understood to refer 
to powerful perverse men. The names of 
Rephaim andNephilim appear unknown in 


America, being mere Hebrew epithets for 
giants and apostates. 

During this primitive period, geological 
and physical changes probably proceeded 
in America. The plains gradually appear 
ed, but full of marshes, lakes and wide 
streams, muddy volcanoes, snakes, croco 
diles and obnoxious animals. Which must 
have assailed mankind and greatly impeded 
their settlements. Although the lives of 
men were perhaps longer than now ; yet it 
is probable that the long lives of the Patri 
archs of this period, allude to as many 
Dynasties or gradual nations sprung from 
each other. In this I agree entirely with the 
learned Hebrew scholar D Olivet. (4.) 

Huge beasts and carnivorous animals, 
dwelt then on earth ; in America several 
species of mastodons, elephants, oxen, me 
gatherium, megalonyx, hyenas, bears, &c., 
which prowled in plains and caves, The 
temperature of the earth was higher ; little 
clothing was needed. Men were at war 
with beasts, and among themselves. Vio 
lence predominated in many regions, and 
Noah one of the DP mis of the Hindus, 
a patriarch of the Adamites, a prophet 
according to the Arabs, went over the earth 
to preach against this corruption. Not 
being attended to, he foresaw that a great 
calamity would befall for these iniquities, 
and he prepared himself a THBE or refuge 
in Central Asia: where he collected his 
relations and friends. Some say they were 


72, our translations of Moses reduces them 
to 8 ; but his 3 sons of Noah, are evidently 
as many tribes. The THBE of Noah con 
tained therefore 4 tribes, including his own, 
and many individuals, besides a multitude 
of animals. 

I do not give now the history of this 
flood. Before it can be given accurately, 
we must collect all the scattered traditions 
about it, compare them, and omitting all 
fabulous and obviously impossible details, 
form a narrative of the whole facts. The 
notions and traditions of the Americans are 
very various, as they do not always point 
to this flood. We find them asserting that 
men were saved in mountains, or caves, on 
rafts or boats. Few, if any, allude to an 
ark, but all to a refuge as THBE. Those 
of Mexico and Peru, are contradictory, al 
luding to several floods, and particularly 
the subsequent of Peleg. 

The most explicit traditions on that score 
are those of the Linapi nations ; although 
the tribes vary the tale, the holy song of 
the real Linapi tribe, alludes clearly to a 
great flood in Asia : when their nations at 
least was partly saved in Tula (the turtle 
land) in Central Asia, by the help of a god 
dess, and Noah or Nana-bush. The men 
were then called Linowi and Linapi : two 
other races of men were saved, the Owini 
(beings) and the Tulapcwi, turtlings or 
atlantes. Besides these foes the Mas- 
kanaka (strong snakes), Nakowa (dark 


snakes), and the Amangamek, monsters 
of the sea; who caused this dire flood. 
These notions are strikingly similar to the 
Asiatic and Hindu fables about the turtle 
saving mankind at the flood. Nana-bush 
is evidently Noah, his name means Noah- 
Noah-hare, or the Great Noah and Hare. 

The Chinese accounts of the first flood, 
do not allude to any ark, but mountains 
were the refuge of mankind. The Hindu 
account is very near the mosaic ; but has 
no boat, and many persons were saved. 
The accounts of the Assyrians, Arabs r 
Tartars, Egyptians, Lybians, Greeks, Celts, 
Polynesians, &c. are all different. The 
mosaic account was borrowed from some 
ancient source now forgotten. It is said 
that Noah himself wrote an account of the 
flood, and preserved ancient records. Di 
vesting the mosaic account from the super 
natural and the impossible, we obtain the 
real tradition of a great aquatic cataclysm. 
Either a sinking of some lands or an irrup 
tion of the ocean, attended with volcanic 
floods of waters from the Caspian sea (as 
Humboldt says,) heavy rains, and a change 
of climate : which overflew the earth or 
most of it ; except some Thebas, refuges 
in mountains, swimming over the waters, 
as it were : there some men and tribes, 
many animals, trees and plants were pre 
served : to spread afterwards again over 
the earth. 

After this flood, America was left pretty 


much as it is now, except that the shores 
were higher yet, many flat plains inundated 
and full of marshes. The Antilles yet unit 
ed in larger islands and perhaps with Cu- 
mana. The Strait of Choco nearly filled 
up : and diluvial soil, gravel, sand, boulders 
and organic remains scattered over the 
land, the hills, plains and caves. Many 
fierce beasts had disappeared, vegetation 
had been destroyed wherever the flood 
went ; but the buried seeds, and those of 
mountain plants gradually grew or spread 
again. The terrestrial animals and birds 
saved in the mountains, spread themselves 
again over the earth. Mankind in despair 
at the disaster, kept for a long while on 
mountains, and did not occupy again the 
desolated hills and plains, until many years 

The Chinese account of this flood, state 
positively that it was attended with a 
change in the length of the year, formerly 
of only 360 days, a change in the seasons, 
an increase of cold, rain and winds : com* 
pelling men to dress in skins and mats. 
Also that the wild beasts and snakes driven 
to the mountains, became very troublesome, 
men being compelled to defend themselves 
against their attacks. 

The Rev. Gleig in his late history of the 
Bible, where like Hales and Russel, he 
has at last adopted the computation of the 
Septuagint arid Josephus, reckons 5411 
years from Adam to our era, the oriental 


Christians reckon 5508 years, the Toltecas, 
reckoned 5099 years. Gleig puts Noah s 
flood 2259 years after Adam. The Chi 
nese and Hindu chronology are partly 
fabulous; but may be reconciled to these 
periods; as well as to the second cataclysm 
of the earth ; that of Peleg according to 
the Biblists. The only knowledge the Bi 
ble gives about it, is that the earth was 
split, broken or divided, in the time of the 
patriarch or dynasty of Peleg ; who lived 
or lasted from 531 to 870 after Noah s 
flood. But David has sung this cataclysm 
in the 18th psalm. The Chinese account 
brings this second flood to the year 2296 
before Christ, or 858 years after the former. 
The Hindu account concealed in many fa 
bles agrees also with this period. But it 
appears to have lasted longer, and many 
years. It is evidently in date the mistaken 
Hebrew flood, blending both into one, and 
annihilating the place between them. The 
Chinese account distinctly speaks of both, 
the first was under Jfunti, the second under 
Fa0, and 42 emperors are mentioned be 
tween the two floods. 

In America, it is often difficult to distin 
guish which is meant by the various im 
perfect traditions : yet in Mexico and Peru, 
there are at least two cataclysms mentioned 
by the annals or traditions. Also among 
some northern tribes. The Linapi annals 
or songs allude to the second, which broke 
by volcanoes the Lusasaki (burnt land) 


and separated America or Akomendki 

(snake island) from Asia to Behring strait. 

Thus the real antidiluvian periods lasted 
nearly 3000 years from Adam s epocha, 
or 3212 by oriental computation. The 
interval between Adam and Noah ought 
to be called the Adamic period, that be 
tween Noah and Peleg s floods the Noahic 
period. It was at this last convulsion that 
the earth took its actual form. The Straits 
of Gibraltar, Calais, Messina, Hellespont, 
Bosphorus, Babelmandel, Behring, Malaca, 
Sunda, &c., were then formed. The At 
lantis Island in the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Island Lanca in the Indian Ocean were 
sunk. The Azores, Madeira, Canaries, 
&c. are fragments of the Atlantis: Cey 
lon, Madagascar, &c. the fragments of 
Lanca. (5) 

In America, the Boreal islands may have 
been broken, like the British islands of 
Europe. Some suppose that they might 
once join together with Iceland. The An 
tilles were split in the actual form Beh 
ring Strait divided America from Asia. 
The Polynesia lands were broken or sunk. 
The lowlands of Chili, Peru, and the At 
lantic shores were inundated and then 
partly left dry by huge volcanic tides. 
This cataclysm was not a mere aquatic 
flood; but a violent volcanic ocd, having 
at least three great focusses, 1. in the North 
Atlantic Ocean, 2. In the Indian Ocean, 
3. In Polynesia or the Pacific Ocean. In 


China all the lowlands were overflowed 
and partly overwhelmed. The great Isl 
ands of Java and Sumatra were formed ; 
which formerly were united with Asia and 
several islands in the vicinity, under the 
remembered name of Sunda land. 

If mankind had not reached America 
before Noah, it must surely have reached 
it before this second cataclysm. The At- 
lantes were in the neighbourhood and bold 
navigators, as w r ell as the primitive Pela 
gians, Lybians, Cantabrians ; bearing then 
various peculiar names, mostly traced in 
America. Twenty American nations have 
distinct remembrance of this splitting of 
American lands and islands ; local or par 
tial floods, less general and disastrous than 
the former. 

This cataclysm was not so deadly to 
animals and vegetables as the former ; but 
it must have destroyed them in several 
sunken islands : and have added second 
clysmian strata to the soil of the plains : 
with many volcanic productions, chiefly 
clay and sand, limy and marshy muds. 
The memorials, annals and traditions of 
the American nations are very scanty on 
this period ; difficult to be distinguished 
from the Adamic : while the monuments 
to be referred to it, are not easily traced, 
nor distinct in form. The Linapi tribes 
had npt yet reached America, and dwelt 
in Asia ; but by their account the Snake 
tribes Akowi went to America in that pe- 

98 NOTES. 

riod, led by Nakopowa (the Snake priest) ; 
it is even hinted that they caused this cata 
clysm or at least the separation of Asia and 
America, at LusasaJd (burnt land), in or 
der to escape their foes, the Elowi-chik 
(hunters) of the Linnapewi, the original 
manly people. 


1. E-AD M, Self- Adam, is the name 
given by Moses to the first men, pronounced 
since Adam. Gen. 1. v. 27; but called also 
ZXR and N K BE or male and female. 
The *2d AD M or Adam was subsequent : 
although the commentators have blended 
them, as they have the floods, days and 
other things. Our bible translation of early 
events is besides very erroneous ; the Tal- 
mudist or Jewish version with points is not 
correct, being in a late dialect : the true 
text of Moses which I follow, has no points, 
but admits of a sheva or soft breathing 
between consonants. 

2. Geological comments are not here 
required, my business is with mankind. 
Moses calls men beside Aish, Anush, 
G ft r, and women Nshim, Itath, Ashe, 
Ashth ; which are perhaps as many names 
of early tribes! as well as ALEIM or 
Elohim, XRBIM Cherubim, Nahash, tyc. 
If these primitive names will offer any ana 
logies in America, they shall be thoroughly 
pointed out hereafter. HUE is the real Eve. 

NOTES. 99 

See the chapter on the Mosaic Ontology 
for many other human beings, or early 
tribes. ]3ut it may be well to add here the 
names of the beings of the 7th and 8th 
Yums which we all deem animals, although 
there are indications to the contrary. 

7. YUM. The MIM waters produced 
SH R TZ production translated reptile! 
No soul. N F SH-HIE, soul living. OUF, 
Fowl, made to come from waters, and their 
motion. LOUF F means both flying and 
flirting or swimming, G. 1. v. 20. But 
ALEIM realized or created the TH NI 
NIM whales, or rather Great fishes, having 
a soul living NFSH-EHIE, verse 21. This 
fine word soul has been translated creature. 

8. YUM. The earth produces with soul 
BEME. Cattle or Herdsmen of life? v. 24. 
R M SH, Reptiles or creeping Troglodytes? 
HITHU, Beasts or Hunters. The BEME 
are perhaps Herdsmen! and all these 
may be men, over whom Adam was to 
reign, giving them names. Else all these 
animals had real souls like men! The 
fishes or fishermen D G TH only appear 
in v. 26. at subjects of Adam. 

Moses and the Hebrew poets divided the 
animals in 3 classes, which represent also 
men ! and were personified. 

1. SH R TZ, Production Moses. 
LUITH N of Job. The Leviathan of 

2. N F SH, Animated Moses. OZNor 
Hozan of Poets. 

100 NOTES. 


Moses has 2 kinds of these: THNINIM 
Aquatic, and OUF-XNF, Fowl strong 
winged, as he had 2 of the last. SH R TZ, 
aquatic reptile, and OUF aerial fowl, 

3. HITHU, Beast : of 2 kinds, BEME and 
RUSH, which are the BEMUTH of Job, 
BEHEMOTH of Poets. 

3. The Cherubim were deemed Angels, 
but of 4 sorts, 3 having faces of a lion y 
ox, and eagle : which indicates tribes bear 
ing those names, or the 4 primitive castes 
of mankind, the oxen referring to the la 
boring caste, the lion to the militant caste, 

4. See his learned work, translation and 
paraphrase of the first chapters of Genesis : 
wherein the best account of the creation, 
antidiluvian history and flood has been 

5. Lanca was according to the Hindus 
a big land under the equator, including 
perhaps the Decan or south of India, then 
separated by a sea from the Imalaya moun 
tains, now yet a vast level plain; and united 
to Ceylon and other islands. It is in this 
land of Lanca that many traditions place 
Adam, with several early events. 

The Stmda land was very different, a 
large peninsula south of Asia including 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo &c. Or perhaps 
an island, if Malaca was separated from 
Siam by a strait. 



GENERAL VIEW of the Ancient and Mo 
dern Annals of both Americas. 
European Colonies, Modern fate of 
nations, late physical changes, <fyc. 

After these floods begin the primitive 
annals of mankind in America as else 
where; but still scanty, obscure and in 
volved in fables, by personifications of 
tribes, metamorphoses into animals, plants, 
fruits or even stones and mountains. The 
origin of nearly all the nations is neither 
clear nor well ascertained, by their mere 
annals ; but the collateral proofs of the 
languages facilitate the enquiry. Those 
who have the most positive facts of primi 
tive times are the Ongwis, Linapis, Tolte- 
cas. Tainos, Peruvians, &c.; but commonly 
destitute of dates and correct details. We 
ought not to be surprised at this, since even 
in Asia (except in China,) we possess no 
thing but fragments on those times; while 
the most polished nations of oldest times, 
the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, 
Jews, &c. have involved their early histo 
ries in fables, mythologies and false dates. 

However, whatever might be the early 
origin of the American nations, it may be 
collected from all, that in the ancient pe 
riods ; they were few in number and in 
population; principally confined to some 


peculiar scats of civilization: such as the 
regions of Apalacha, Hayti, Anahuac, 
Oaxaca, Chiapa, Maya, Cundina, Oronoc, 
and Peru. We have positive proofs of 
early empires and splendid monumental 
cities at Teoti-huacan, Otolum, Cohan &c. 
in Central America ; and in South Ame 
rica at Chimu, Tiahuanaco &c.; while 
cities and monuments of a lesser order or 
size, were scattered afterwards from the 
Lakes of Canada and the River Ohio, to 
Chili and Brazil : probably through the 
dispersion and colonization of these early 
empires or states. (1) 

After they had filled the most fruitful or 
suitable regions, carrying with them agri 
culture, domestic animals, religion, laws 
and various graphic systems : they were 
invaded by tribes less civilized ; but more 
warlike ; principally in North America, 
and in Guyana, Brazil &,c. Many revo 
lutions must have followed these contests : 
some of which are recorded in the Apa- 
lachian region of the United States, in the 
Mexican table land, in Hayti &c. and by 
the Muyzcas, Peruvians &c. further south : 
while in Guyana and Brazil the annals are 
lacking, and the traces of these conflicts 
but faint ; yet certified by some traditions 
and the new tribes introduced. 

The solar worship prevailed among the 
most civilized nations and empires: that 
of Naguals or Zemis (spirits) among those 
of the second degree. The least civilized 


nations had either adopted the Dualism or 
a mixed religion : while the barbarous 
tribes knew only a kind of Tao religion as 
in China, (2) or a fetichism, venerating one 
or many objects of nature. But these four 
main worships, were subject to many fluc 
tuations, and diversities : they had often 
degenerated into a Polytheism, and idol 
atry, with various rites, and some cruel 
customs, human sacrifices &c. A kind 
of priesthood was almost universal and 
formed a peculiar caste in many states. 
The legislators and rulers had often been 
priests, and became pontifs as well as 
kings, in Cuzco. Chimu, Tunca, Mayapan, 
Cholula, Manazicas &c. 

During a period of 2 or 3000 years after 
the floods, the earth had undergone many 
changes by volcanoes, earthquakes and the 
subsiding of the sea. Many valleys were 
drained, their lakes lessened or disap 
peared ; the shores of the Atlantic from 
New Jersey to Florida and Yucatan, and 
from La Plata to Magellania, as well as 
those of Peru, Chili &c. were increased 
by the gradual retreat of the sea. The 
great plains of the Mississippi, Oronoc, 
Maranon and Parana were also formed or 
drained of their swamps and morasses. 

It is at the end of this epocha, equal to 
the antecedent antidiluvian period, that 
the real or certain history of the Ameri 
cans begins with many details and dates ; 
both in the north and south. It was then 


that the empires of the Toltecas, Utatlans. 
Mexicans, Apalachis, Mayapans, Incas&c. 
were established on the ruins of many an 
terior states. We obtain by the annals 
preserved or recovered of many such na 
tions, a tolerable view of this part of their 
history, and even an insight into earlier 
times, when similar revolutions must have 
happened. If many states or nations rose 
and fell in this hemisphere, unknown to the 
other : it vas a common fate with others 
in Africa, Polynesia and even in Asia. 
But we may hope to rescue their names if 
not their deeds, from total oblivion, by 
seeking their monuments, arid the frag 
ments of human tribes they left to mourn 
their fate. 

In this period some American nations 
rose to a degree of splendor and civiliza 
tion, with knowledge of arts and sciences, 
little inferior to Greeks and Romans ; and 
superior to the European nations of the 
middle ages, even down to 1492 : quite 
equal at least to that of the Egyptians and 
Hindus. The American graphic systems 
of Apalacha, Anahuac, Maya, Otolum, 
Peru ; although peculiar, were quite suffi 
cient to transmit knowledge in books, 
schools and inscriptions. This high civili 
zation was not merely confined to Mexico 
and Peru, as often erroneously supposed ; 
but was scattered from the Apalachis and 
Nachez of Florida to the Chilians south of 
Peru, filling the whole intermediate space. 


Although war and slavery prevailed in 
many parts, they were modified by the 
usage of adoption for individuals and whole 
tribes, mutual alliances, confederacies &,c.: 
while slavery Was changed into a feodal 
vassalage. The feodal system and the 
castes prevailed in all civilized nations of 
America, as in India and Asia from earliest 

Instead of perpetual wars the ancient 
annals of America, present us with the 
soothing view of wise legislators, who gave 
civilization and happiness to millions for 
ages, and conquered by deeds of peace!* 
Such were most of the conquests of the 
Bohitos, Bochicas, Incas, Quetzals, Cucul- 
cans, Tzomes, Maponos, Tamanends, Ta- 
renyos &,c. worthy lawgivers of the Antilles, 
Muyzcas, Peru, Anahuac, Mayas, Guara- 
nis, Manazicas, Linapis, and Ongwis. I 
shall revive, with pleasure, their memory 
and deeds, dwelling on them with more 
pleasure than on the cruel war leaders. 

To them the Americans were indebted 
for their policy, diplomacy, alliances, agri 
culture and knowledge, with the peculiar 
happy mode of holding the land in common 
or feodal tenure, with property in tene 
ments and moveables. To them may be 
traced the introduction of usefnl plants, 
the maize, cotton, quinoa, patatas, yams, 
manioc, banana, gourds, beans, and 100 
other cultivated plants and fruits. The 
Mexicans had even botanic gardens and 


pleasure grounds before the modern Euro 
peans. The universities of Cuzco, Tunca, 
Tezcuco, Cholula, Mayapan, Utatlan &c. 
were founded earlier than the European 
universities by such benefactors of man 
kind ; and 112 domestic animals had been 
tamed in America, while only 80 in the 
eastern hemisphere. Of which must be 
reckoned. (3) 

In the W. Hemisphere. In the Eastern. 
Quadrupeds 33 kinds only 25 kns. 
Birds 32 25 

Reptiles 15 10 

Fishes 12 10 

Insects 8 4 

Shells and worms 12 6 

The modern history of America since 
1492 presents a multitude of events with 
regular dates : but the historians of these 
later times instead of dwelling upon the 
native nations, appear to notice them merely 
en passant ! while relating at length the 
discoveries, conquests and wars of the Eu 
ropean adventurers and colonists. 

It is not thus that we are to notice them ; 
but as equal nations. Now that after four 
ages, these colonies are also become inde 
pendent nations, and begin to nurse Ame 
rican feelings, we ought to feel for them, 
and reveal the truth. It is not number 
nor dominion alone that constitute a peo 
ple ; but a peculiar language, and peculiar 
manners. The modern history of the 
Araucanians, Guaranis, Caribs, and North 


American tribes, is the best known by pe 
culiar fragments ; but similar fragments 
may be collected on many other tribes. 

Meantime Columbus came, another lea 
der of colonists to America; since many 
had come before him : and with him came 
the ferocious gold hunters of Castille ; who 
in their greedy search after golden wealth, 
trampled under foot, both religion and hu 
manity. They enslaved, tortured and de 
stroyed millions of human beings from 
Hayti to Mexico and Peru ; but were 
checked at last in Florida, Chili, Tolo- 
galpa, Santa Marta &c. They overthrew 
many flourishing states, and erected over 
them a slavish colonial fabric, soon after 
sunk in sloth and ignorance. (4) 

The dissentions of Mexico and Peru were 
the cause of their ruin and subjugation by 
the Spaniards ; but the Floridans, Apaches, 
Tayronas, Poyays, Caribs, Mbayas, Chilians 
&c. withstood forever their utmost efforts, 
and never were conquered. The happy 
states of Yucatan, Guatimala, Tunca, Hayti, 
Cuba &c. fell by their unwarlike and peace 
ful friendly disposition ; being cruelly be 
trayed and desolated. 

In the east, Brazil was occupied by the 
Portuguese, where a bastard tribe of Ma- 
malucos were born ; who sought for slaves 
and gold, from Guayana to Paraguay, and 
destroyed many tribes. After these un 
worthy freebooters, came the rabble of 
pirates and baccaneers to revenge Ameri- 


can wrongs, upon the Spaniards and Portu 
guese by deeds of cruelty. Thus was 
America flooded with blood, and groaning 
in tears for nearly three centuries. But 
even these horrible deeds were not the 
only ones to deplore. Not satisfied with 
the weak labor of American slaves ; an 
other continent was overrun, to supply 
stronger hands, and Africa was made to 
contribute millions of slaves to swell Ame 
rican population, or sink there to premature 
death under the lashing scourge of cruel 

The English, French, and Dutch wishing 
to partake of the American spoils, went in 
search of wealth all over the shores of this 
continent. Not satisfied with mere trading 
colonies, as in India, they sent stationary 
colonies of slaves and planters, to occupy 
some weak points, with or without the 
consent of the nations. The Dutch settled 
in Brazil, Surinam, Curazao and New York. 
The French in Canada, Louisiana, Florida, 
Hayti, the Carib Islands, Cayenne and Bra 
zil ; but have gradually lost all those colo 
nies, except Cayenne and a few Carib Ids. 

The English nation, more daring, steady 
and lucky, occupied with their auxiliaries, 
the Scotch and Irish, some points of the 
Atlantic shores, many Carib Islands &c.: 
by conquest they acquired New York, Ca 
nada, Demerary, Jamaica and some smaller 
islands. Since, whenever the Europeans 
were at war among themselves, they carried 


their quarrels over the ocean, and endea 
vored to destroy each other. Laterly 
among them arose in North America the 
holy flame of freedom and independence, 
which has been travelling and spreading 
throughout the continent, ever since. 

But among these contending colonies and 
slaving plantations, how were the owners 
of the soil, treated and dealt with ? Alas ! 
seldom with justice Popes and kings gave 
away lands and rights, which did not belong 
to them; nobles and merchants, availing 
themselves of this doubtful right, bought 
with trifling presents the good will of some 
tribes, or drove them away by force. Thus 
were settled most of the American colonies ; 
except a few, attempted in a spirit of reli 
gion and peace. 

The worthy Las-Casas, immortal be his 
name ! gave the example of reducing un 
subdued tribes to peaceful allies, by words 
and deeds of peace and piety, and Tezutlan 
thus reduced by him was called Verapaz. 
When the Spanish and Portuguese free 
booters were sunk in wealth and sloth; 
they found it very convenient to employ 
the Jesuits and other monks to subdue for 
them whole tribes and nations, by this easy 
mode. In North America, Roger Wil 
liams and William Penn, blessed be their 
names ! settled colonies without strife, and 
by mere good will towards the owners of 
the soil. But every where the foes or 
successors of these missionaries of peaco, 


deceived or betrayed the allies they had 
made. Unjust wars were the natural con 
sequence, in which the rightful party, did 
not often prevail, being overpowered by 
strength and cunning. 

Meantime the independent period opens 
a new era for America. In 1776 the 
United States of North America confede 
rate and become free. Seventeen years 
afterwards the black slaves of Hayti unfurl 
the standard of broken chains. Between 
1808 and 1820 the whole of Spanish Ame 
rica shakes the weak power of Spain. In 
1822 the whole of Brazil becomes an 
American empire. Slavery is abolished 
in all the Spanish states, only retained in 
the colonies of Cuba and Porto Rico. In 
1834 England emancipates the slaves of 
all her colonies. Slavery was gradually 
excluded from many states of N. America, 
at early periods ; but others from Virginia 
to Louisiana are tenacious of these unholy 
and dangerous bonds. 

Now, the native American tribes within 
the claimed territories of these new inde 
pendent nations, are under a sort of pupil 
age, and often oppressed: although no 
onger slaves from Canada to Chili. Bra 
zil alone admits of indescriminate slavery, 
and will rue the consequence at some 
future period, like those colonies and states 
that delay wiser measures. Meanwhile at 
the two ends of America, in Canada and 
the United States, as in Buenos Ayres, a 


new kind of oppression has appeared. 
Land stealing and compulsory sales! un 
hallowed means to increase wealth, nearly 
as guilty as the precious Spanish gold 

The United States which ought to set 
the wisest example, of justice and cle 
mency, towards reduced tribes, diminished 
by vices taught instead of virtues, are doing 
the reverse. They refuse to amalgamate 
the native tribes, admit them to equal 
rights, as in the new Spanish States ; but 
compel them to submit to laws not under 
stood, in a language untaught, or disqualify 
them for witnesses. They compel them to 
remove, emigrate, disperse, sell their lands 
and homes, at one tenth of the value ; and 
this is called fair dealing ! 

Notwithstanding that the European states 
or colonies, occupy or claim, nearly the 
whole of both Americas ; yet there are 
many vast regions as yet unsettled by them, 
and where dwell or wander several free 
tribes, particularly in the Arctic wilds, 
in Oregon, California, Texas, the Missouri 
plains, New Mexico, Sinaloa, Tologalpa, 
in N. America and in S. America in the 
vast plains and deserts of the Oronoko, 
Maranon, Brazil, Chaco, Chili and Magel- 
lania. The most prominent of these mo 
dern tribes are the Uskis or Esquimaux, 
the Dinnis, the Chopunish, Dacotas or 
Sioux, Panis or Skeres, Washas or Ozages, 
Chactas, Tzulukis, Apaches or Cuman- 


ches, Poyays or Musquitos &c. In South 
America, the Aruacs, Caribs, Omaguas, 
Maynas, Aymaras, Puris, Mbay as, Araucas, 
Talahets or Pampas &c. All divided into 
many lesser tribes and independent com 

Instead of endeavoring to civilize them 
by fair means and deeds of peace, many 
continue to be exasperated by unfair deal 
ings, greedy traders, intemperance, and 
above all by killing their game, and steal 
ing their lands. Some missions are esta 
blished from Greenland to Chili ; but the 
intercourse of the majority is with traders, 
trappers, land-hunters or squatters, and the 
military of the frontiers : from whom they 
can imbibe no very favorable idea of their 

How is this to end ? Is it really intended 
to grasp the whole continent, and make 
these fragments of nations, aliens on their 
own soil? or to annihilate them at last? 
Beware ! men of bad faith, or greedy of 
landed wealth ! There is a God in heaven, 
and he deals justly with nations as with 
men. He may find means to punish you, 
if you continue to violate the sacred laws 
of mankind. The desperate tribes, either 
become stronger by concentration, or ac 
quired knowledge, may fall on you at last, 
like so many Goths and Vandals, Huns 
and Tartars, to revenge their wrongs, and 
desolate this land wrongly acquired. Or 
among you will arise Agrarian sects, that 


will deprive your children of this landed 
property so unjustly acquired and held. 

Be wise and just in time, if cupidity 
does not blind you, imitate the happy po 
licy of Mexico, Guatimala, Peru &c. that 
has admitted the natives to equality and 
citizenship. Do better still, allow them to 
form peculiar states and territories, pre 
serving their languages and laws, and 
admit these states into your confederacies. 
Then you will be secure, and both live in 
peace, increasing and multiplying as time 
rolls on. There is land enough for all, and 
to spare. What need has a man of 1000 
acres of land ; while 100 can support a 
large family ! in the cold climates, and 10 
acres in the fruitful tropical climates, where 
thrive the banana and the sugar cane. If 
hunters require a large wilderness to sus 
tain their mode of life, greedy worshippers 
of mammon wish for 10,000 acres to hold 
waste for speculation ! or to fill with plan 
tations of slaves and tenants, in order to 
become lords of future generations; but 
the real wise and active men, the props of 
society , are content with moderate secure 
estates, which they may improve and beau 
tify into smiling gardens. 

The modern intercourse of the two he 
mispheres has been productive of much 
more misery, than mutual benefit. The 
Americans have received the European 
cattle without imparting to Europe, their 
equally useful Peruvian cattle ; they have 


received the horse, and often adopted him 
as a friend, to become Tartars and Arabs 
by his help, so as to retaliate mischief on 
the cruel Spaniards. Some European fruits 
and grains have been received and culti 
vated : while all have been introduced into 
the colonies. Woolen cloth, blankets, iron 
and copper kettles, tools, trinkets, guns and 
gunpowder, with the liquid poisons of the 
still, have been spread by trade. These 
last with horses and guns, have been the 
chief deadly weapons of Europe against 
America. (5) 

In return, Europe has received gold, sil 
ver and precious furs : pearls and diamonds, 
cochineel, annato, indigo, die woods, vicunia 
wool, cacao, vanilla, gum elastic and many 
other useful or medical articles. Maize, re 
turning east whence it came ; with tobacco, 
a loathsome weed of heathen growth and 
rites. Human knowledge has been in 
creased, and trade greatly enlarged ; the 
tame cavias, with turkeys and musky-ducks 
have been transmitted. Thus Europe has 
been the gainer, and was for a long while 
jealous of these treasures. (6) 

Under the pious guise of hypocrisy, the 
heavenly religion of Jesus, was offered or 
forced upon many American nations, by the 
same men, who were behaving worse than 
heathens, worshipping gold and mammon 
with the earth itself, bathed in human blood 
and tears; introducing slavery and over 
toils ; exulting in deeds of cruelty, revenge, 


wanton lust, cupidity and avarice ; with all 
the other anti-christian vices. If Mexico 
had ghastly idols and cruel rites ; Hayti, 
Cuba, Bogota, Peru &c. had not; but 
peaceful, harmless worships : to which was 
substituted the papal worships of other idols, 
saints and monks. The pure undefiled re 
ligion of love and peace to all mankind, was 
seldom introduced in America, even by the 
Jesuits except by the heavenly Las-Casas, 
the friendly quakers, the humane moravians, 
and a few other Christian missionaries. All 
the sects of Christianity have now spread to 
America, and even some arisen there; nay, 
the Jews have reached this continent, with 
a few Mahometans, Hindus, Chinese, Bud- 
hists &c. Thus all the religions of the 
earth are now found in this hemisphere, by 
the tolerance and freedom of opinions lately 
proclaimed in many parts. 

Great has been the influence of 3 or 4 
ages, on the American tribes, that have 
been enslaved, or in frequent communica 
tion with the nations of Europe not in 
religion alone ; but in dress, manners, 
knowledge, civilization and pursuits. The 
alphabetical writing has been introduced 
among them, the Tzulukis have invented 
a syllabic alphabet; some arts, and the 
pastoral nomadic life have been adopted. 
In the boreal regions, the English and 
Russians employ the hunting tribes as pro 
viders of furs. In South America the 
native tribes are often skillful fishermen or 


Upon the whole, the late prospects of 
America are cheering. Many independent 
nations have sprung, which deem them 
selves Americans, and love their homes. 
A general spirit of tolerance and peace is 
spreading, the true religion of the heart 
better understood; and a disposition is 
evincing to render tardy justice to the op 
pressed tribes, and the poor slaves. Those 
who wish oppression and intolerance to be 
perpetuated, are not many in this conti 
nent, at present ; they will be fewer still in 
half a century or the year 1892. 

Thus, mankind lives in fluctuations of 
mind and manners. A few ages have been 
sufficient to produce these mighty changes. 
Meanwhile, nature although changing slow 
er, is still at work on the soil of this hemis 
phere. Since 1492 volcanoes have appeared 
and disappeared, the sea shores have re 
ceded, the lakes are falling, the streams are 
lessening, the mountains are crumbling, the 
swamps are draining : immense forests have 
been cut, and changed into ploughed fields, 
hills have been cut or ploughed, roads, 
causeways and canals made, splendid cities 
have been built, with innumerable towns 
and villages. The deltas of the Mississipi 
and Magdalena have been cultivated, many 
mines dug for metals or coals. The face 
of the country has been quite changed in 
these new seats of civilization ; in the re 
gions of Apalacha from Canada to Louisi 
ana, in Guyana, Brazil ; but in the western 

NOTES. 117 

regions from Mexico to Chili, agriculture 
has rather receded : they had at least as 
many towns and fields in ancient times. 

Earthquakes and irruptions of the sea 
have caused sad changes in other parts, 
gulfs have been formed on the coast of 
Cumana, Callao twice sunken in volcanic 
tides, mountains and cities overthrown from 
Popayan to Chili : while the alluvial forma 
tions proceed along the streams and shores; 
their floods are perennials, increasing deltas 
and islands: Hurricanes scatter ruins and 
dismay over the Antilles, whirlwinds pros 
trate strips of forests. The spouting springs 
and earthy volcanoes eject water, mud, 
clay and marl, pitch and other substances. 
The water volcanoes drown valleys and 
cities, have ruined Guatimala, and deso 
lated Quito. Mexico near a lake and often 
overflowed by it, is now distantly removed ; 
the lake having been drained by nature and 
art jointly combined. (7) 

These rapid sketches and views offer a 
connected picture of men and soil, in this 
hemisphere, during the ages past. The 
detailed local annals of the various nations, 
will enlarge the subject, and present the 
required outlines of the ancient and modern 
events of both. 


1. The monumental archeology and his 
tory of America, is not the least curious. 

118 NOTES. 

Humboldt opened the way ; but did little : 
the facts since collected in Central and 
North America, will astonish all the re 
flecting minds, and lead us to times of great 
civilization and prosperity. In the single 
small state of Kentucky, have already been 
found the sites of 200 ancient towns in 
ruins, or having monuments. If as many 
exist in all the neighbourhood, there must 
have been 2000 towns in North America, 
west and south of the Apalachian moun 
tains. Many earthy remains are gradually 
disappearing under the plough, and will be 
obliterated ere long. See my account of 
monumental sites, published in 1824. 

2. The Tao is one of the earliest reli 
gions of China. It is the personification 
and worship of the powers of nature, the 
earth, air, winds, thunder, sea, mountains, 
lakes, trees &c. The spiritual worship of 
their souls is the purest part of it, while the 
blind material worship of the objects them 
selves is the degradation of it, as in Egypt 
and Guinea. 

3. See my Memoir on the Domestic 
Annnals of Both Hemispheres, 1832, At 
lantic Journal, where the names of all are 
given. But I have collected a few more 

4. By admixture with American women, 
the Spaniards formed a mixed race in 
Hayti, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay &c. ; 
called Cholas, Mestizos &c. ; which par 
took of the qualities and vices of both 

NOTES. Ill) 


races ; few great men have been produced 
by them ; although we know of some 
exceptions. Lavega one of the best Ame 
rican historians was son of a Peruvian 
princess by a Spaniard. In Paraguay the 
Spaniards having no women, took Guarani 
concubines, and all their offsprings were of 
mixt breed, a sad set, like the Mamalucos 
of Brazil born from Portuguese and Tupi 
women. These instances, and the produc 
tion of mulatoes subsequently, teach us 
how some former nations were born in 

5. The Missouri tribes, Panis and Cu- 
manches, the Abipons and Talahets of the 
vast plains of N. and S. America ; are al 
ready become wandering horsemen like 
Tartars, quite formidable in war. Many 
tribes now possess and use guns. Brandy, 
rum and whiskey, liquors of hell, . . make 
the savage foes furious and reckless : they 
have killed as many as guns have. The 
small pox is another scourge sent to Ame 
rica from Europe, the Cholera may be 
another. The Syphilis wrongly ascribed 
to America, has been traced to the ancient 
continent also : although it was returned 
from hence again, like maize. 

6. The precious commodities of America 
are numberless. If the Europeans had 
traded there for them, as they now do in 
China, Persia, Arabia and Africa, how 
different would have been the fate of Ame 
rica? Iron would have purchased gold 

120 NOTES. 

and pearls, with every thing else : there 
was no need to use the steel swords, nor 
thundering guns. Coffee and rice are not 
American productions, but lately intro 
duced from Arabia and India. The origin 
of the sugar cane is also oriental ; but it 
was found wild in South America, as 
orange trees were in Florida. 

7. The physical changes undergone in 
America within late historical recollections 
are very numerous, and ought to be col 
lected into one connected body by historians 
or geologists. 

After these general topics on American 
history, I had proposed to enter upon the 
peculiar annals of nations, beginning by 
Peru and Austral America ; but wishing to 
give in this first volume something still 
more novel and striking, I have concluded 
to begin by the original unpublished annals 
of the Linapis, and the neglected traditions 
of the Haytians ; who assert to have come 
into America, by the north west, and the 
second through the Atlantic Ocean. I 
hear besides that a French traveller D Or- 
bigny, is now publishing in Paris, his tra 
vels in Austral and Peruvian America, with 
60 vocabularies of languages: where I may 
perhaps find additioried materials for the 
history of those regions. 



Original Annals and Historical Tradi 
tions of the LINAPIS, from the creation 
to the flood, passage and settlements 
in America, as far as the Atlantic 
Ocean $c., till 1820 #c. 

We have but few real American Annals, 
given in the original peculiar style. Those 
of Mexico, Guatimala, Apalacha, Hayti, 
Peru, &c., have all been translated by 
abridgements or paraphrases. Those of 
the Ongwi by Cusick come nearest to the 
aboriginal form, using the usual personifi 
cations and animalizations of tribes, so 
common all over America and Asia ; but 
so often misunderstood : having perplexed 
and disgusted the commentators or trans 
lators ; who did not seize this form of style. 
Even in China, the primitive inhabitants 
often bear the names of beasts, Lung dra 
gons, Chi birds, %ao wolf, Miao tygers. 
In India we find snakes, monkeys, lions &c. 
Early in Europe are dogs Canari and 
Cynetes, satyrs, lions &c., syrens, harpies, 
pegasus, centaurs, faunes, cyclops &e. (1) 

In the Antilles the first inhabitants were 
called beasts or Caracol, turtles Icota, 
birds, opossums, seals, trees, stones, even 
gourds and fruits. (Roman s Trad.) In 
Peru we find tygers, lions, giants, pygmies, 
snakes &c. In Mexico, birds, apes, snakes, 


tygers, giants &c. While throughout North 
America we find tribes of beavers, turtles, 
wolves, dogs, deer, birds. We must learn 
to appreciate this primitive form of speech 
and style, as allegorical names of men &c. 
It is very needful in order to understand 
the following narratives. 

Having obtained, through the late Dr. 
Ward of Indiana, some of the original 
Wallam-Olum (painted record) of the 
Linapi tribe of Wapahani or White River, 
the translation will be given of the songs 
annexed to each: which form a kind of 
connected annals of the nation. In the 
illustrations of this history, will be figured 
the original glyphs or symbols, and the 
original songs, with a literal translation, 
word for word. This will furnish a great 
addition to our knowledge of American 
graphics and philology ; but here the an 
nals are chiefly interesting historically. I 
have translated, however, all the historical 
and geographical names, so as to afford a 
better clue to the whole. (2) 

We knew by all the writers who have 
had friendly intercourse with the tribes of 
North America, that they did possess, and 
perhaps keep yet, historical and traditional 
records of events, by hieroglyphs or sym 
bols, on wood, bark, skins, in stringed 
wampuns &c.; but none had been pub 
lished in the original form. This shall be 
the first attempt. Lederer saw 200 years 
ago in Carolina, wheels of 60 rays, record- 


ing events of 60 years. Humboldt has 
mentioned the glyphical symbols of the 
Hurons on wood, seen by the Jesuits. 
Heckwelder saw the Olumapi or painted 
sticks of the Linapis ; but did not describe 
them ; he merely translated some of their 
traditional tales : which agree in the main, 
with these historical songs ^ yet the songs 
appear mere abridgments of more copious 
annals, or the bases of the traditions. The 
Ninniwas or Chipiwas, the Ottowas, the 
Sakis and Shawanis &c., all Linapi tribes, 
have such painted tales and annals, called 
Neobagun (male tool) by the former. Tan 
ner has figured some of these pictured 
songs or Neobagun, in his interesting Nar 
rative. Loskiel has stated that the Lina 
pis had complete genealogies, with symbols 
expressing the deeds of each king. Beatty 
in 1766 saw records 370 years old. 

Out of these materials and other kept by 
the Ozages, Cowetas, Tzulukis, Panis &c., 
might be formed or restored a peculiar 
graphic system of north America, different 
from the Mexican system ; and probably 
once imported from Asia: where it may 
be compared with the graphic symbols of 
the Kuriles, Yakuts, Koriaks &c., indi 
cated by Humboldt; but which are un 
known to me. Meantime I shall give 
materials for such researches in my illus 
trations. The symbols, when met alone, 
were inexplicable; but by obtaining the 


words or verses, (since they must commonly 
be sung) we may acquire enough to lead on 
further enquiries. The most obvious pe 
culiarity of this system, is that each symbol 
applies to a verse or many words ; as if the 
ideas were amalgamated in the compound 
system : yet they may often be analyzed, 
and the elements ascertained or conjec 
tured, by their repetition. 

These historical songs of the Linapi, are 
known to but few individuals, and must 
be learned with much labor. Those ob 
tained, consist of 3 ancient songs relating 
their traditions previous to arrival in Ame 
rica, written in 24, 16 and 20 symbols, 
altogether 60. They are very curious, but 
destitute of chronology. The second series 
relates to America, is comprised in 7 songs, 
4 of 16 verses of 4 words, and 3 of 20 ver 
ses of 3 words. It begins at the arrival in 
America, and is continued without hardly 
any interruption till the arrival of the Eu 
ropean colonists towards 1600. As 96 
successive kings or chiefs are mentioned, 
except ten that are nameless : it is suscep 
tible of being reduced to a chronology of 
96 generations, forming 32 centuries, and 
reaching back to 1600 years before our 
era. But the whole is very meagre, a 
simple catalogue of rulers, with a few 
deeds : yet it is equal to the Mexican an 
nals of the same kind. A last song, which 
has neither symbols nor words, consisting 


in a mere translation, ends the whole, and 
includes some few original details on the 
period from 1600 to 1820. (3) 

The orthograghy of the JLinapi names is 
reduced to the Spanish and French pro 
nunciation, except SH as in English, U as 
in French, W as Hou. 

If any one is inclined to doubt this his 
torical account; the concurrent testimonies 
of Loskiel and Heckewelder are my cor 
roborant proofs. The words of Loskiel 
are these. 

The Delawares keep genealogies, with 
; the character of each man, if wise, rich, 
"renowned, or a mighty warrior. They 
; use hieroglyphs on wood, trees and stones, 
* to give caution, information, communicate 
" events, achievements, keep records. Some 
" time the hero has at his feet, men, heads 
"or weapons. They have also paintings 
" on skins of deeds, hunts, feats &c. 
1. Song. The Creation fyc. 

1. At first there was nothing but sea- 
water on the top of the land, Aki. 

2. There was much water, and much fog 
over the land, and there .was also KITANI- 
TOWIT, the God-creator. 

3. And this God-creator was the first- 
being (Saye-wis\ an eternal being, and in 
visible although every where. 

4. It was he who caused much water, 
much land, much cloud, much heaven. 

5. It was he who caused the sun, the 
moon and the stars. 



6. And all these he caused to move 

7. By his action, it blew hard, it cleared 
up, and the deep water ran off. 

8. It looks bright, and islands stood 
there. Menak. 

9. It was then, when again the God- 
Creator made the makers or spirits. 

10. And also the first beings Owiniwak, 
and also the angels Angelatawiwak, and 
also the souls Chichankwak, all them he 
made. (4) 

11. And afterwards he made the man- 
being JIN-WIS, ancestor of the men. (5) 

12. He gave him the first mother NETA- 
MIGAHO, mother of the first beings OWINI. (6) 

13. And fishes he gave him, turtles he 
gave him, beasts he gave him, birds he gave 

14. But there was a bad spirit Maki- 
mani, who caused the bad beings Mako- 
wini, black snakes Nakowak, and monsters 
or large reptiles Amangamek. 

15. And caused also flies, and caused 
also gnats. 

16. All the beings were then friends and 
stood there. 

17. Thou being KIWIS, good God Wu- 
NAND (these are 2 gods) and the good ma 
kers or spirits were such. 

18. With the Jins NIJINI, the first men, 
and the first mother, their wives, which 
were Fairies Nantinewak. (7) 


19. The first food of the Jins and Fairies 

Pwas a fat fruit Gattamin. 
20. All were willingly-pleased, all were 
easy-thinking, and all were vell-happified. 
21. But after awhile a Snake-priest, 
Powako, brings on earth secretly the 
Snake worship Initako, of the god of the 
Snakes WAKON. (8) 

22. And there came wickedness, crime 
and unhappiness. 

23. And bad weather was coming, dis 
temper was coming, with death was coming. 

24. All this happened very long ago, at 
the first land Netamald, beyond the great 
ocean Kitahikan. 

%d Song. The Flood <$>c. 

1. There was long ago a powerful snake 
Maskanako, when the men had become 
bad beings Makowini. 

2. This strong snuke had become the foe 
of the Jins, and they became troubled, hat 
ing each other. > 

3. Both were fighting, both were spoiling, 
both were never peaceful. 

4. And they were fighting, least man 
Mattapewi with dead-keeper Mhanlowit. 

5. And the strong snake readily resolved 
to destroy or fight the beings and the men. 

6. The dark snake he brought, the mon 
ster (Amangam) he brought, snake rush- 
ing-water he brought. 

7. Much water is rushing, much go to 
hills, much penetrate, much destroying. 

8. Meantime at TULA, at that island, 


NAMA-BUSH (the great hare Nanci) became 
the ancestor of beings and men. 

9. Being born creeping, he is ready to 
move and dwell at TULA. (9) 

10. The beings and men (Owini and 
lanowf) all go forth from the flood creep 
ing in shallow water, or swimming afloat, 
asking which is the way to the turtle back 
TULAPIN. (This verse like many others 
is in rhymes, and metre of 9 words of 3 

11. But there were many monsters 
(Amangcumelt) in the way, and some men 
were Devoured by them. 

12. But the daughter of a spirit, helped 
them in a boat, saying come, come, they 
were coming and were helped. (The 
name of the boat or raft is Mokol.} 

13. Nanabush, Nanabush, became the 
grandfather of all, the grandfather of the 
beings, the grandfather of the men, and the 
grandfather of the turtles. (This is the be 
ginning of a hymn to Nanabush, in rhymes, 
lasting for 4 verses.) 

14. The men were there, the turtle there, 
they were turtling altogether. (Tulapewi 
are the turtle-men 

15. He was frightened, he the turtle, he 
was praying, he the turtle, let it be to make 

16. Water running off, it is drying, in 
the plains and the mountains, at the path 
of the cave, elsewhere went the powerful 
action or motion. 


3d Song. Fate after the Flood. 

1. After the flood, the manly men Lina- 
pewi, with the manly turtle beings dwelt 
close together at the cave house, and dwell 
ing of Talli. 

2. It freezes was there, it snows was 
there, it is cold was there. 

3. To possess mild coldness and much 
game, they go to the northerly plain, to 
hunt cattle they go. 

4. To be strong and to be rich the comers 
divided into tillers and hunters. Wikhi- 
chik, Elowi-chik. 

5. The most strong, the most good, the 
most holy, the hunters they are. (10) 

6. And the hunters spread themselves, 
becoming northerlings, easterlings, souther- 
lings, westerlings. Lowaniwi, Wapaniwi, 
Shawaniwi, Wunkeniwi. 

7. Thus the white country Lumonaki, 
north of the turtle country, became the 
hunting country of the turtling true men. 

8. Meantime all the snakes were afraid 
in their huts, and the snake priest Nako- 
powa said to all, let us go. 

9. Easterly they go forth at Snakeland 
Akhokink, arid they went away earnestly 

10. Thus escaping by going so far, and 
by trembling the burnt land Lusasaki is 
torn and is broken from the snake fortified 
land. Akomenaki 

11. Being free, having no trouble, the 
northerlings all go out, separating, at the 
land of Snow Winiaken. 


12. The fish resort to the shores of the 
gaping sea, where tarried the fathers of 
white eagle and white wolf. Waplanewa, 

13. While our fathers were always boat 
ing and navigating, they saw in the east 
that the snake land was bright and wealthy. 
(Here begins a fine poetical rhyming nar 
rative). See Last Note. 

14. The head-beaver Wihlamok, and 
the big-bird Kicholen, were saying to all, 
let us go to the Snake Island Akomen. 

15. By going with us, we shall annihilate 
all the snaking people, Wemaken. 

16. Having all agreed, the northerlings 
and easterlings, went over the water of the 
frozen sea to possess that land. 

17. It was wonderful when they all went 
over the smooth deep water of the frozen sea, 
at the gap of the Snake sea in the great ocean. 

18. They were ten thousand in the dark, 
who all go forth in a single night in the 
dark, to the Snake island of the eastern 
land Wapandki in the Dark, by walking 
all the people. OLINI. (12) 

19. They were the manly north, the man 
ly east, the manly south ; with manly eagle, 
manly beaver, manly wolf; with manly 
hunter, manly priest, manly rich; with 
manly wife, manly daughter, manly dog. 
(12 words all homophonous rhymes.) 

20. All coming there, they tarry at Fir- 
land Shinaking. But the western men 
doubtful of the passage, preferred to remain 
at the old turtle land. 


Thus end these interesting and positive 
ancient traditions, by a fine poem on the 
passage to America over the ice ; the Sha- 
wanis have a similar poem : the Illinois had 
also one, and almost every Linapi tribe. 
They are perhaps lost ; but this being at 
last rescued, will preserve the memory for 
ever. Now begin the second series of 
songs, in a different style, seldom rhyming, 
but made metrical by an. equal number of 
words in each verse, 4 in the 4 first which 
carry the tribe till their conquest of the 
Talegas ; but only 3 in the 3 later poems 
on the subsequent history. Thus these 
songs diminish in details as they advance ; 
but they are mere abridgment of better 
annals now probably lost. Numbers shall 
be annexed to each successive king or 
ruler, so as to compute the generations. 
1. Song. At Shinaki till the 10 Kings 
or Civil Wars. 

1. Long ago, the fathers of men were 
then at Shinaki or Firland. 

2. The path leader was the white eagle 
(Wapalanewa 1), who leads them all there. 

3. The Snake island was a big land, a 
fine land, and was explored by them. 

4. The friendly souls, the hunting souls, 
the moving souls, in assembly meet. 

5. All say to him, beautiful-head (Kola- 
wil 2) be thou king there. 

6. The snakes are coming, thou killest 
some, to Snake hill, let them all go. 

7. All the snakes were quite weak, and 
concealing themselves at the Bear hill. 


8. After Kolawil, white owl (Wapagok- 
hos 3) was king at the Firland. 

9. After him there lanotoici (4 true 
maker) was king, and many things he did. 

10. After him there Chilili (5 snowbird) 
was king, who says let us go south. 

11. To spread the fathers of men Wo- 
kenapi, and to be able to possess much 
more. (13) 

12. South he goes the snowbird, but east 
he goes the beaver-he Tamakwi. (Here 
is the separation of the Dinnis. 

13. A beautiful land was the south land, 
the big Firland and the shoreland Shabi- 

14. But the eastern land was a fish land, 
and a lake land, and a cattle land. 

15. After Chilili, the great warrior (Ay a- 
mek 6) was king, when all the tribes were 
at war. 

16. There was war with the robbing- 
men, snaking-men, blacking men, strong 
men. Chikonapi, Akhonapi, Makatapi, 
Assinapi. Thus ends the first song with 
civil strife and great wars, dividing some 
tribes probably. 

2d Song. From the 10 Kings till the 
Missouri fyc. 

17. After Ayamek came ten kings, in 
whose time there was much warfare south 
and east. (14) 

18. After them Langundowi (peaceful- 
he, 17 kg.) was king at the beautiful land 
Akolaking, and there was peace. (15) 

19. After such Tasukamend (never-bad 


18) was king, and he was a good or just 

20. After such was king Pemaholend 
(ever beloved 19) who did much good. 

21. King afterwards was Matemik (town 
builder 20) who built many towns, and 
afterwards the holy goer Pilsohalin 21. 

22. King afterwards was Gunokeni 
(long while fatherly 22, who ruled long) and 
afterwards the big teeth Mangipitak 23. 

23. King afterwards was Olumapi (24 
manly recorder or bundler) who caused 
many writings. (16) 

24. King afterwards was Takwachi (25 
who shivers with cold) who went south to 
the corn land Minihaking. 

25. King afterwards was Huminiend 
(26 corn eater) who planted much corn 

26. King afterwards was Alkosahit (27 
preserving keeper) who had a royal soul 
and was very useful. 

27. King afterwards was Shiwapi (28 
salt man) and afterwards dry-he Penk- 
wonwi 29. 

28. There was no raining, and no corn 
grew, east he goes far from the sea. (17) 

29. Over hollow mountain Oligonunk, 
at last to eat he went at a fine plain Kalok- 
waming of the cattle land. 

30. After Penkwonwi came Wekwo- 
chella (30 much weary) after such the stiff 
( Ch ingalsuwi 31.) 

31. After such was Kwitikwund (32 the 



reprover) who was disliked, and some un 
willing to obey. 

32. Being angry some moved easterly, 
and secretly went far off. 

3d Song. Prom the Missouri to tJic 
Mississippi <$*c. 

33. But the wise did tarry, and Waka- 
holend (33 the beloved) was made king. 

34. It was at the Yellow River Wisa- 
wana where there was much corn, large 
meadows, and again were built towns. (18) 

35. All being friends Tamenend (34 
affable like a beaver) became king and was 
alone the first. (19) 

3G. Such Temenend was the very best, 
and all the men came to him. 

37. After such good Maskansisil (35 
strong buffaloe) was king and chieftain or 

38. MachigoJchos (36 big-owl) was king, 
Wapkicholen (37 white crane) was king. 

39. Wingenund (38 mindful) was king 
and pontiff, who made many festivals. (20) 

40. Lapawin (whitened 39) was king, 
Wallama (40 painted) was king. 

41. Waptiwapit (41 white chicken) was 
king, again there is war north and south. 

42. By the wise in assembly TamasJcan 
(strong wolf 42) was made king. 

43. He was able to war on all and he 
killed the strong-stone Maskansini. (21) 

44. Messissuwi (43 whole-he) was king 
and made war on the snake-beings Akowini. 

45. Chitanwulit (44 strong and good) 


>vas king and made war on the northern 
foes Lowanuski. 

46. Alokuwi (45 lean he) was king and 
made war on the father snake Towctkon. 

47. Opekasit (46 east looking) was king, 
being sad at the warfare. 

48. To the sunrise he said let us go, and 
they are many who together go east. 

4th Song. Conquest of the Talegas fyc. 

49. The fish river J\emasipi separated 
the land, and being lazy they tarry there. 

50. Yagawanend (47 hut maker) was 
king, and the Tallegewi (there found) pos 
sessing the east. 

51. Chitanitis (48 strong friend) king 
was, and he desires the rich land of the 

52. To the east some did pass, but the 
head of the Talegas, Talegawil killed some 
of them. 

53. Then of one mind, all say, warfare, 

54. The friends of the north the Tala- 
matan (who are not like the Talligewi, 
the Hurons) were coming to go altogether 

55. Kinehepend (49 sharp looking) was 
king, and leader, over the river against foes. 

56. Much was there possessed by them, 
and much spoiling and killing of the Talegas. 

57. Pimokhasuwi (50 stirring about) was 
king, but he found the Talegas too strong 
in the w r ar. 


58. Tenchekensit (51 opening path) was 
king, and many towns were given up to him. 

59. Paganchihilla (52 great fulfiller) 
was king, and all the Talegas went away 
to the south. 

60. Hattanwulaton (53 he has posses 
sion) was king, and all the people were well 

61. South of the lakes they settle the 
council fire, and the friends Talamatan 
north of the lakes. 

62. But they were not always friends 
and were conspiring when GunitaJcan (54 
long mild) was king. 

63. Linniwulamen (55 man of truth) 
was king, and made war on the Talamatan. 

64. ShaJcagapewi (56 just and upright) 
was king, and the Talamatan were trem 


1st Song. At the Talega land. 

1. All were peaceful long ago there at 
the Talega land Talegaking. 

2. Tamaganend (57 beaver leader) was 
king at the White River or Wabash Wa- 

3. Wapushuwi (58 white linx) was king 
and planted much corn. 

4. WulichiniJc (59 well hardy) was king, 
and the people increased. 

5. Lekhihitin (60. writer writing) was 
king and painted many books Wallamo- 
lumin. (23.) 


6. Kolaclmisen (61 pretty blue bird) was 
king, at the place of much fruit Makeli- 
ming. (near Cincinnati ?) 

7. Pematalli (62 constant there) was 
king and had many towns. 

8. Pepomahemen (63 paddler up) was 
king of many rivers and streams. 

9. Tankawon (64 little cloud) was king, 
while many went away. 

10. The Nentegos and the Shawanis, 
went to the south lands. (24.) 

11. Kichitamak (65 big beaver) was 
king at the white lick Wapahoning. 

12. The heavenly prophet Onowutok 
(66) went to the west. (25) 

13. The west he visited, the forsaken 
land and the western southerlings. 

14. Pawanami (67 rich water turtle) 
was king at the Ohio River Taleganah. 

15. Lokwdend (68 walker) was king, 
and had much warfare. (26) 

16. Again with the father snake Towako, 
again with the stony snake Sinako, again 
with north snake Lowako. 

17. Mokolmokom (69 the grand father 
of the boats) was king and went snaking 
in boats. 

18. Winelowich (70 snow hunter) was 
king and went to the north land of the Es 
quimaux Lowushkis. 

19. Linkwekinuk (71 sharp looker) was 
king and went to the Alleghariy Mountains 

20. Wapalawikwan (72 east settler) 


was king and went east of the Talega 
land. (27) 

Id Song. At the East till first White 
Man comes. 

21. This land of the east, was a large 
land Amangald, and a long land Amigaki. 

22. This land had no snakes, but was 
a rich land, and many good things were 
found there. 

23. Gikenopalat (73 great warrior) was 
king near the north. 

24. Hanaholend (74 stream loving) was 
king at the branching stream or Susque- 
hanna Saskwihanang. (28) 

25. Gattawisi (75 becoming fat) was 
king at the sassafras land Winaki. 

26 All the hunters reach the Salt Sea of 
the sun GishiksJiapipek, which was again 
a big sea. 

27. Makhiawip (76 red arrow) was 
king at the tide water. 

28. Wolomenap (77 hollow man) was 
king at the strong falls (of Trenton) Mas- 

29. The Wapanand (ensters) and the 
Tumewand (wolfers or Mohigans) north 
east they go. (29) 

30. Wulitpallat (78 good fighter) was 
king and set against the north. 

31. The Mahongwi (lickers or Iroquois) 
and the Pungelika (the lynx like or Eries) 
were all trembling there. 

32. Again Tamenend (79 beaver II) was 
king there, and with all he made peace. 


33. And all became friendly, and all be 
came united, with this great ruling king. (30) 

34. Kichitamak (80 great beaver) was 
king and remains at the sassafras land or 

37. Wapahakey (81 white body) was 
king and went to the Sea Shore on Jersey 

38. Elangomel (82 friendly to all) was 
king and much good was done. 

39. Pitenumen (83 mistaker) was king, 
and saw some one come from somewhere. 

40. At this time from the east sea was 
coming a whiter Wapsi. (31) 

3d Song. Till the arrival of Colonies. 

41. Makelomush (84 much honored) was 
king and made all happy. 

42 Walakeningus (85 well praised) was 
king and became a warrior of the south. 

43. He must make war on the Cheroki 
Snakes Otaliwako, and on the Coweta 
Snakes Akowetako. 

44. WapagamoshM (86 white otter) was 
king, ally of the Lamatan or Hurons. 

45. Wapashum (87 white big horn) was 
king and visited the west land of Talega. 

46. There he found the Illinois Hiliniki, 
the Shawanis Shawoniki, and the Conoys 

47. Nitispayat (88 friendly comer) was 
king, and he went to the big lakes. 

48. And he visited all the beaver-children 
or Miamis, and all the friends or allies. (32) 

49. Pakimitzin (89 cranberry eater) 


was king, and made alliance with the 
Ottawas, Tawa. 

50. Lowaponskan (90 north walker) was 
king, and he visited the noisy place or 
Niagara Ganshowenik. 

51. Tasliawinso (91 at leisure gatherer) 
was king, and visited the Sea shores. 

52. Then the offspring, in three desiring, 
three to be, and they became the Turtle 
tribe, the Wolf tribe, and the Turkey tribe. 
Unamim, Minsimini, Chikimini. (33) 

53. Epallahchund (92 failer) was king, 
in the war with the Mahongwi^ wherein 
he fails. (34) 

54. Langomuwi (93 friendly he) was 
king and the Mahongwi were frightened. 

55. Wangomend (94 saluted) was king 
yonder between. 

56. The Cherokis Otaliwi and Wasio- 
towi (those of the Otali and Wasioto mts.) 
were his fees. (35) 

57. Wapachikis (95 white crab) was 
king and ally a friend of Jersey on the 

58. Nenachihat (90 watcher) was king 
and looking at the sea. 

59. At this time north and south the 
Wap&yachik came, the white or eastern 
moving souls. 

60. They were friendly, and came in big 
bird-ships, who are they ? (36) 

Thus end these poetical annals, so cu 
rious and so plain, when properly under 
stood and translated. The following addi- 


ion is merely a fragment on the subsequent 
period, translated by John Burns. I give 
it as received although I fear it is inaccu 
rate in some respects, and a paraphrase 
rather than literal account. Yet by this 
addition, we obtain a kind of general his 
tory of at least one American tribe, and a 
complete original series of traditions, in 
their peculiar pristine style. Many others 
will bo added hereafter, either from printed 
traditions, or historical songs and fragments. 
Fragment on the history of the Linapis 
from about 1600 till 1820. 

1. Alas, alas! we know now who they 
are, these Wapsinis (white people) who 
then came out of the sea, to rob us of our 
country. Starving wretches ! with smiles 
they came ; but soon became snaking foes. 

2. The Wallamohim was written by Lek- 
hibit (the writer) to record our glory. Shall 
I write another to record our fall ? No ! our 
foes have taken care to do it ; but I speak 
to thee what they know not or conceal. 

3. We have had many other kings since 
that unhappy time. They were 3 till the 
friendly Mikwon (Penn) came. Mattani- 
kum (not horned, not strong, see Note 37) 
when the Winakoli (Swedes note 38) 
came to Winaki. Nahumen (raccoon) 
when the Sinalwi (Dutch) came. And 
Ikwahon (fond of women) when the Yank- 
wis (English) came, with Mikwon and his 
friends soon after. 

4. They were all received and fed with 
corn ; but no land was ever sold, we never 


sell any. They were all allowed to dwell 
with us, to build houses and plant corn, as 
our friends and allies. Because they were 
hungry, and thought children of Gishaki 
(the sun land) and not snakes nor children 
of snakes. (39) 

5. And they were traders, bringing fine 
new tools, and weapons, and cloth, and 
beads, for which we exchanged skins and 
shells and corn. And we liked them, with 
their things, because we thought they were 
good, and made by the children of GishaM. 

6. But alas ! they brought also fire guns 
and fire waters, which burned and killed. 
Also baubles and trinkets of no use ; since 
we had better ones. 

7. And after Mikwon, came the children 
of Dolojo-Sakima (King George) who 
said, more land, more land we must have, 
and no limit could be put to their steps and 

8. But in the north were the children of 
Lowi-Sakima, (King Louis), who were 
our good friends, allies of our allies, foes of 
our foes : yet Dolojo always wanted to war 
with them. 

9. We had 3 kings after Mikwon came. 
Skalichi who was another Tamenend (40), 
and Sasunam Wikwikhon (our uncle the 
builder), and Tatami (the beaver taker) 
who was killed by a Yankwako (English 
snake), and we vowed revenge. 

10. Nctatawis (first renewed being) 
became king of all the nations in the west, 
again at Talligewink (Ohio or the Talega 


>lace) on the river Cayahaga, with our old 
allies the Talamatans-. and he called on 
all of the east. 

11. But Tadeskung was chief in the east 
at Mahoning and bribed by the Yankwis : 
there he was burnt in his house, and many 
of our people were massacred at Hickory 
(Lancaster) by the land robbers Yankwis. 

12. Then we joined our friend Lowi in 
war against the Yankwis ; but they were 
strong, and they took Lowanaki (north 
land, Canada) from Lowi, and came to us 
in Talegawink) when peace was made; 
and we called them big knives Kichikani. 

13. Then Alimi (white-eyes) and Gele- 
lenund (buck killer) were chiefs, and all 
the nations near us were allies under us as 
our grandchildren again. (41) 

14. When the eastern fires were set up, 
and began to resist Dolojo, they said we 
should be another fire with them. But 
they killed our chiefs Unamiwi (turtling) 
and our brothers on the Muskingum. Then 
Hopokan (strong pipe) of the Wolf tribe 
was made king, and he made war on the 
Kichikani Yankwis, and become the ally 
of Dolojo who was then very strong. 

15. But the eastern fires were stronger, 
they did not take Lowanaki (Canada) but 
become free from Dolojo. We went to 
Wapahani (white river) to be further from 
them; but they follow every where, and 
we made war on them, till they sent Mak- 
hiakho (black snake, General Wayne) who 
made strong war. (42) 


16. We made peace and settle limits. 
Our next king was Hacking- Ponskan 
(hard walker) who was good and peaceful. 
He would not even join our brothers Sha- 
wanis and Ottawas, nor Dolojo in the next 

17. Yet after the last peace, the Kichi- 
kani-Yankwis came in crowds all around 
us, and they want also our lands of Wapa- 
Jtani. It was useless to resist, because 
they are getting stronger by increasing 
united fires. 

18. Kithtilkund and Lapanibi (white 
water) were the chiefs of our two tribes, 
when we resolved to exchange our lands, 
and return at last beyond the Masispek 
(muddy water, Mississippi) near to our old 
country. (43) 

19. We shall be near our foes the Wa- 
kon (god of snakes, the Ozages) but they 
are not worse than the Yankwiakou (Eng 
lish snake), who want to possess the whole 
big island. (44) 

20. Shall we be free and happy there ? 
at the new Wapahani (western white riv 
er). We want rest, and peace, and wisdom. 

Such is one of the accounts of the trans 
actions between this people and the English, 
United States &c ; of which Loskiel, Holm 
and Hekewelder have furnished other frag 
ments, and for which we have ample mate 
rials in the colonial history and late records. 
But this offers some new views and facts : 
which shall be partly compared and dis 
cussed in the notes; but more properly 


examined and united in accordance with 
other narratives, in the history of the North 
American nations and tribes. The 11 
kings in about 2*20 years named in this 
fragment, indicate 107 altogether till 1820 
and later. 

That so many generations and names can 
be recollected, may appear doubtful to some; 
but when symbolic signs and paintings, 
with poetical songs, are added, the memory 
can well retain and perpetuate their con 
nection. Even in Polynesia, where we 
are not told of symbols, but mere historical 
songs, they reach to the creation and flood ; 
Ellis and Tierman tell us that the kings 
and priests of Tahiti, Ulieta or Raiaka, 
Hawahi, Mowi &c. could repeat the names 
of ancestors and kings for 100 generations. 
It would have been well if instead of giving 
us mere fragments of the songs and names, 
they had translated the whole, and thus 
furnished the connected annals of Polynesia. 

In the Liriapi annals, we find not merely 
their own deeds; but the mention of many 
other nations, friends, allies or foes, as in 
Cusick s Traditions of the Ongwis: and 
this forms another clue for American his 
tory. As early as the Asiatic period we 
find them united to the related people 
Owini and Nijini, before the flood, and call 
ing their foes Powako (rich snake), Ma- 
kowini (bad being,) Maskanako (strong 
snake), similar to the satanic tribes of the 
Hebrews &c. (45) 


At the flood they arc saved with the 
Tulapin turtlemen, and begin to call 
themselves Linapewi. Soon after they 
separate, go north and divide into tribes, 
named after the winds, the mode of life 
and animals. The hunters are Elowi Elo- 
him of the orientals, or Heros and Hercules; 
they again meet snakemen, who fly to Ame 
rica and must have produced there many 

After having filled the north, and after 
the breaking of the land, at Behring strait, 
part of the nation resolve to follow and 
pursue the snakes to the east. The passage 
by the Olinis over the hard sea or ice, is 
beautifully sung in a peculiar hymn (see 
last note); they settle at Shinaki, and begin 
again to war on snakemen : after which the 
beaver men or Tamakwi separate going east 
where they became the Dinni nations, yet 
called beaver tribes, who ascribe their ori 
gin to a beaver and a dog, and call their 
ancestor Chapewi, similar to Apiwi, the 
manly in Linapi. 

Meantime the main tribe going south 
meets other nations which it is difficult to 
identify, as the names are mere epithets 
and nicknames, yet the Assinipi or stony 
men, appear to be the Dacota or Sioux yet 
called Assini or stony by the tribes of Lin 
api origin. They reappear afterwards as 
Maskan-sini or Sinako, and appear to have 
passed to America soon after the Linapi. 
They are certainly of Asiatic origin, as the 


languages prove, and very akin to the Hu- 
rons or Ongwis in America. 

The Akowini are met again, which ap 
pear to have become the ancestors of the 
Covvetas and many Florida tribes. The 
Lowamiski were either the Uskis or the 
Skeres. The Towakon were not the Otta- 
was; but probably the Ozages or their 
ancestors the Wakons. (46) 

At last they meet the civilized Talegas, 
who are not called snakes, but rather ex 
tolled, and from whom they borrowed many 
things : their symbol is very different from 
that of the snakes. They were probably 
of eastern or atlantic origin, akin to the 
Tols, Talascas, and Telicos the ancient 
Cherokis. The Talamatan become allies, 
were the Hurons, the name means both un 
like the Talegas and killer of the Tolas. 
See Cusick, and my Huron Traditions for 
their own annals. 

The separations of the Nentegos and 
Shawanis, Mohigans, and Wapanends or 
Abenakis, are distinctly given; they filled 
the sea shores from Florida to Acadia. 
Three tribes of snakes reappear which are 
similar to the former, except the Lowako 
probably the same as LowanuskL After 
crossing the Alleghanies Tamenend II. re 
unites all the tribes. The Hiliniki and 
Conowiki easily identified remain west of 
the mountains. The Iroquois and Eries 
appears under peculiar Linapi names. 

The Otalis and Cowetas appear soon 


after as snakes or foes ; whether the Otalis 
or Cherokis of the mountains were real 
snakes of the west is doubtful ; it is more 
likely that they are a fragment of the Teli- 
cos, which was their capital till lately, and 
later they are called Otaliwi by the Linapis. 
Compare the Tzuluki traditions with these. 

The Tawas who call themselves fathers, 
as the Linapi grandfathers, of all the akin 
tribes, had then towards 1400, a great 
power in the west: their empire had a 
pontiff MusJikiwis near lake Michigan, on 
whom Cass has given some very important 

The following chief chronological periods 
are deducible from these annals, by reck 
oning 3 generations in a century. About 
1600 years before Christ passage of Beh- 
ring strait on the ice, lead by Wapalanewa, 
settlement at Shinalci. 

1450. Chilili leads them south, and the 
TamaJfwi separate. 

1040. Peace after long wars under Lan- 
gundewi at the land AkolaMng. 

800. Annals written by Olnmapi. 

750. Takwaclii leads to Minikaking. 

650. Penkwonwi leads east over moun 

460. The first Tamenend great king on 
the Missouri 

60. Opekasit leads to the Mississippi. 

About 50 years of our era, alliance with 
the Talamatans against the Talegas. 

150. Conquest or expulsion of the Talegas. 

NOTES. 149 

400. Lekhihitan writes the annals. 

540. Separation of the Shawanis and 

800. Wapalawikwan leads over Alle- 
ghany mountains to AmangakL 

970. Wolomenap settles the central capi 
tal at Trenton, and the Mohigans separate. 

1 170. Under Pitenumen arrival of Wapsi 
the first white men or Europeans. 


1. These two figures of speech, Per son- 
ification and Animalization, are two of the 
keys of ancient history. By the first is not 
meant alone the personification of the pas 
sions or divine attributes ; but likewise the 
individuality of men, tribes and nations 
pervading primitive history, by the frequent 
substitution of the singular for the plural, 
as was done by the Asiatics, the Greeks, 
and the Americans. It is thus that the 
ancient patriarchs, Hercules, Heros, Gods 
&/c. are often meant for their followers; 
the head for the whole set or social body. 
This practice has survived to our days, 
and we mean all the English when we speak 
of John Bull, the Russians by the Nor 
thern Bear (a kind of animalization), all 
the Turks by the Grand Turk &c. The 
reverse mode of speech or the employment 
of the plural for the singular, is less fre 
quent : but used when we substitute in our 

150 NOTES. 

modern languages, We and You instead of 
I or Thee. It was less common anciently, 
yet it appears Moses employed it when he 
called God, ALEIM our Elohim or the 
Angels, and polytheism was the conse 
quence of similar mistakes or substitutions; 
but in his account of the patriarchs, he has 
used the individuality of tribes. 

Animalization pervades the whole of the 
fabulous periods of history. It is to this 
mode of speech that we owe the fables of 
Pilpay and Esopus, where animals are 
made to speak. Whenever we meet in 
history or fables, animals acting like men 
and conversing, they are surely men, and 
often tribes individualized by an animal 
appellation : such as might be emblematic 
or patronymic, adopted honorable names, 
as lion, tyger eagle ; or else nicknames 
given in derision by foes, such as snake, 
dog, ape &c. Even the Hebrew had their 
Cherubim, who were beings like a man, a 
lion, ox, and eagle ; who drove the Adam 
ites from Eden. This name is preserved 
by the Turks in Cher obi or Ckehibi, which 
means Lords in the old Turkish language 
of Turan or Tartary. Perhaps also in the 
El-abi, now Arabians, which meant Angel- 
fathers, or our forefathers the angelic men. 
Elapi means the most manly in Linapi ! 

2. The word Olum is remarkable, be 
cause it is analogous to the GLEN, the 
legislator and teacher of Runes of the 
Celts. The writings of the Druids and 

NOTES. 151 

Irish were called OCOL, C ALLAN, OGHAM, 
the Irish OLAM were recorders and teach 
ers. Olum does not properly mean a writ 
ing, since Leki is book, paper or letter in 
Linapi ; but it implies a record, a notched 
stick, an engraved piece of wood or bark. 
It comes from Ol hollow or graved record. 
Hekewelder says that Oluma-pisid was in 
the 18th century, a king of the Linapis on 
the river Susquehanna, who kept the Olum 
or records of the nation. It is probable 
these were part of them. 

3. These actual Olum were at first ob 
tained in 1820, as a reward for a medical 
cure, deemed a curiosity ; and were unex- 
plicable. In 1822 were obtained from an 
other individual the songs annexed thereto 
in the original language ; but no one could 
be found by me able to translate them. 1 
had therefore to learn the language since, 
by the help of Zeisberger, Hekewelder and 
a manuscript dictionary, on purpose to 
translate them, which I only accomplished 
in 1833. The contents were totally un 
known to me in 1824, when I published my 
Annals of Kentucky ; which were based on 
the traditions of Hekewelder, and those 
collected by me on the Shawanis, Miamis, 
Ottawas &c. 

4. This account of the creation is strik 
ingly similar to the mosaic and oriental 
accounts; although it does not speak of 
days or Yums. The word for angels An- 
gelatawiwak, is not borrowed, but real 

152 NOTES. 

Linapi, put in the plural : thus the same 
as the Greek Angelos. 

5. Jin-wis is the AISH or Adam of all 
the Linapi tribes. WIS is identic with 
ISH, W being the article he, WI added 
to words is common, meaning but he, she 
and they, the plural wok means many. 

6. Owint may be analyzed O-WI-NI, 
meaning such-they-men or beings. O is 
the common article for pronouns On and Ce 
of the French, in English such, it, this, these, 
preserved in many Linapi dialects, JVi and 
Ini mean both me, I, my and men. It must 
be noticed that many words of these two 
ancient songs are often obsolete now in 
some modern dialects; but preserved in 
others. This with the peculiar ancient 
style, and the many words suppressed in 
the narrative, and the constant compound 
words, have rendered this translation a 
difficult task. 

7. Here the Omni become Ni-jini, evi 
dently the Jins of China and Iran; Jains 
of India. 

8. Wakon is the god of all the Missouri 
tribes, and many Asiatic nations. AJcon 
of Syria. 

9. Tula is the ancient seat of the Tol- 
tecas and Mexican nations in Asia : the 
Tulan or Turan or Central Tartary. In 
Linapi the meaning is Turtle or Tortoise, 
names derived from Thor turtle in Hebrew. 
But all derive from strong and tall. Tul- 
ap-in is the real tortoise of Linapi meaning 

NOTES. 153 

strong-manly-thing : the water soft turtle 
is called UnamL The Chinese, Hindus 
&c. point also to a turtle as the TUBE 
refuge of the flood. Nana appears Noah ; 
his title of Hare must allude to his long 
ears ? All the Linapi tribes have tales and 
songs on Nana-bush, which they venerate 
as a god ; but his symbol is a turtle body 
with a large head and nose, and a crest of 
feathers or hair on the head. 

10. The symbol is a kind of Hercules, 
with a club and arrow ; his name appears 
to be Eluwi, thrice repeated and meaning 
the most he. Elu the root is probably akin 
to the Aleim or Elohim of Moses, and 
Elai meaning strong in Hebrew : also to 
Her-culrt: of 1-.3 Lai lecn of the 
Greek, Her prefixed meaning Lord. 

11. This alludes to the formation of Beh- 
ring strait. Mena means both an island, a 
fort, castle or strong place. Menapit is 
also the name of Tula in the 8th verse of 
the first song, and thus the ark. In Persian 
Ark is a fort, in Syrian a boat. 

12. Here the people begin to be called 
O-LINI, this was probably their old name 
when coming to America. The tribes that 
used R for L must have said O-rini, those 
who have neither, as the Niniwas and 
Ottawas, say O-ninL This will afford 
matter for many philological enquiries and 

13. Woken-api properly "me an the fa 
thers manly. Shinaki the first seat in 

154 NOTES. 

America must have been near Alaska, and 
the big Shinaki, the N. W. coast. 

14. It is doubtful whether these 10 name 
less kings were successive or contemporary 
during the civil strifes. But the first is most 
probable. If otherwise, this lessens the 

15. This southern land of Akolaking, 
and the subsequent Mimhdking^ cannot 
be identified; but were west of Oregon 
mountains, probably the Oregon country. 

16. As early as 72 generations before 
1600 or about 800 years before our era, we 
find a recorder of old events, by means of 
Olum. Compare Olen and Olam of Celts. 

17. Here this people leave at last the 
Sea shores, and strike to the east over the 
mountains. In Oligon, we have the ety 
mology of Oregon. 

18. Wisawana is either the Missouri or 

19. This Tamcnend is famous in the 
songs of the Linapis, and many kings took 
that title afterwards. He is also the Amik- 
wi or great beaver of the Miamis and 

20. Wingenund must have been another 
legislator, and high-priest. His festivals 
are called Gentiko, and known to many 

21. Maskan-Sini, must be the Sioux and 
Assinis, called stony or hard people through 
out North America. The subsequent foes 
Akowini appear to be the Kowetas^ the 

NOTES. 155 

Lowanuski are the Esquimaux, Lowakon 
are the Ozages and Missouri tribes. Thus 
this was a period of invasions by many na 
tions, which compelled the Linapis to go 
further east. 

22. The Nemasipi is the Mississippi, so 
says Hekewelder : where began the wars 
with the Talegas, the northern Toltecas 
or Atlantes, towards 48 generations before 
1000, near the beginning of our era, which 
continued for 4 generations or over 130 
years, till about 150 after Christ. The 
allies Talamatans are the Hurons and Iro- 
quois then united, since called Delamatan 
and Lamatan. The traditions of Heke 
welder and Cusick both agree here in fact 
and time. That of Hekewelder is most 
ample, taken from other songs ; but these 
supply names omitted by both. I rather 
think the Nemtfsipi must have been the 
Ozages or Illinois river, since the Missis 
sippi is called afterwards Masispek, and the 
monuments of the Talegas are found west 
of it at St. Louis &c. 

In my ancient history of Kentucky, hav 
ing only for guide Hekewelder and some 
other traditions, I placed the conquest of 
the Talegas about 500 of our era; but 
these annals are more correct and remove 
further this event. The computation of 
Cusick annals of Ongwis place this great 
event still earlier, or between 300 and 100 
years before our era. I knew neither Cu 
sick nor the Wallam-Olum in 1824. 

156 NOTES. 

23. Here we find another recorder of 
events who probably wrote the former wars 
with the Talegas. 

24. The Linapi tribes begin to disperse 
now, about 600 years of onr era. 

25. This prophet, pontiff and king, went 
probably to .visit many tribes, and became 
their legislator. 

26. These new wars were again with 
the Missouri tribes, Lowako is a new in 
vading tribe from the north. 

27. The passage of the Alleghanies was 
towards 800 of our era: the atlantic states 
appear to have had no inhabitants, or but 
few. Hekewelder confirms these facts. 

28. Hekewelder has given no etymology 
of this river, the name means either branch 
ing or roaring stream, perhaps both. Wi- 
naki was the name of east Pennsylvania. 

29. By this account tl* ? Mohigans only 
separated towards 970 from the main body. 
This may be inaccurate, as the north-east 
tribes appear older by their traditions. 

By the account given by the missionary 
Beatty in 1766, this event would be still 
later : he states that after separating from 
the western tribes and long wanderings, the 
Lenaps (Linapis) settled on the river Dela 
ware 370 years before 1766, or in 1396; 
which was preserved in a mosaic bfelt. 
See Moultorfs Hist, of New -York, Vol L 

30. This is the second Taraenend who 
united all the tribes 1010. This famous 
name is spelt very variously Tainanend, 

NOTES. 157 

Tamany, Tamini &c. all meaning beaver- 
ing or acting like a beaver. There are 
many songs and traditions on them. 

31. Here is the first mention of white 
men towards 1170 by the computation of 
generations: whether they were Eric or 
Madoc, or both, will be enquired hereafter. 
The Tuscororas of North Carolina were 
visited at the same time by Cusick tradi 
tion, the Mohigans had also their Wach- 
queow. Hekewelder has omitted this 
tradition like many others. But Holm in 
his description of New Sweden positively 
gives two traditions of the Liriapis, tribe 
Renapis, of a white woman who came to 
America, married an American, had a son, 
who went to heaven ; and of 2 bigmouths (or 
preachers) who came afterwards with long 
beards, and also went to heaven. This 
relates to the bishop Eric who went to 
convert the Americans between 1120 and 
1160, rather than Madoc or a warlike band. 

32. The Miamis or M amiwis were de 
scendants of the first beaver tribe, separated 
long before. 

33. This verse is double, or has 2 sym 
bols with 6 words, appearing to be two 
different readings united, or two modes of 
expressing the same thing, the separation 
of the real Linapis into three tribes. 

34. This may allude to the subjection of 
the Linapis, by the M&hongwis (Mengwi 
or Iroquois) about this time, caused by the 
division of the tribes. The name of failer 


158 NOTES. 

is certainly an epithet or nickname given : 
most of the names of kings appear of the 
same kind or titles. We know they changed 
names when becoming kings or after great 

35. Otali is the real name of the Cheroki 
mountaineers, so says Adair : this recalls 
the Talegas to mind, of whom they may be 
a fragment. The Wasioto are the Cum 
berland mountains, meaning the South 
Sioto. The Siotos were a Missouri tribe 
that advanced as far as the Sioto river in 
Ohio, gave name to it, and were expelled 
by the Ottawas ; probably akin to the Otos 
of Missouri. They bear the snake sign in 
the symbol. 

36. The symbolic glyph for this event is 
nearly the same as for the arrival of Wapsi 
or Eric. A sea, a boat, with mast, sail, 
and cross over it. Every nation is denoted 
by a peculiar sign on the head in these an 
nals, 1. Jinwis and his wife by an aureole, 
2. the Ako or snakes by a forked tongue 
or 2 horns, 3. the Jins by a crown of rays, 
4. the Owinis by a feather, 5. the kings by 
3 feathers, the medial longer, 6. the Esqui 
maux by a T, 7. the Talamatans by the 
same reversed j,, 8. the Talegas by a bar 
pointing to the right, 9. the Nentegos by a 
hook, 10. the Europeans by a cross. This 
erinces a kind of systematic symbolic plan, 
like the Mexican ; but the symbols are very 
seldom similar. 

37. Mattanikum appears to be both the 

NOTES. 159 

Tinikum and Mattaliorn of the Swedes 
and Holm. Horn is not a Linapi word, 
but Swedish, so as to translate half the 
name. He was king in 1645. 

38. Holm says the Renapis called the 
Swedes, Akhoures, which in dialect Linapi 
would be Akoli, meaning ugly or snake- 
looking ; the prefix Win, means either the 
beings or snow, or may refer to Winaki. 

39. The assertion that no land was ever 
sold to the colonists is singular. They 
thought to buy land with trifling presents; 
but the natives understood all the while the 
permission to dwell with them. 

40. This is a third Tamanend, the great 
king of the whole nation dwelling at the 
forks of the Delaware, which appears in 
Penn s treaties, and came in great pomp in 
1697. The other chiefs mentioned in deeds, 
were only his vassals : he is also called 
Taminy; but is very different from Tatami 
who was king till 1748 at Welakamika or 
Nazareth, where he was killed by an Irish 
settler. Hekewelder mentions him; but 
has many blunders on Tamanend, having 
mixt the three into one. 

41. Netawatwis was king in the west 
from 1748 till 1776. Alimi or Coquetha- 
gekton (Heck) was regent of his grandson 
Unamiwi till 1780, after him Gelelelund 
was regent till 1782 when the boy Unamiwi 
was killed by the Bigknives. (Heck.) thi* 
was the cause of the wars till 1795. 

160 NOTES. 

42. General Wayne was compared to 
their old foes, and called Black Snake> be 
cause he beat the allied nations. 

43. These are the chiefs of the two united 
tribes, that appear in the last treaty with 
the United States. 

44. The United Stated here are called 
snakes like the oldest foes of mankind. 
The insiduous manner in which the English 
settled North America, and wronged the 
natives, has procured them that appellation. 
The French and Canadians are never called 
snakes. The former names of .Yantywis 
has only been preserved as our Yankees. 
The belief of their being Gishakis or chil 
dren of the sun-land, at the sun-rise, has 
long been exploded here as in South Ame 
rica. The Spanish cruelties did since pro 
cure to the Castillians the names of devils, 
assassins, snakes of the sea &c. 

45. Many other notions on the primitive 
nations, may be collected from the mytho 
logies of the various Linapi tribes. Their 
true devils are similar te vampyres. 

46. Wakon is the god and ancestor of 
all the Washashas or Ozage tribes, Arkan- 
zas, Sioux &c belonging to the Capaha or 
Missouri group of nations. 

Additional Note. As a specimen of the 
original text and poetry of these annals, I 
give now the poem on the passage to Ame 
rica : the whole text and all the symbols will 
be given hereafter. 

NOTES. 161 

13. Amakolen 





14k Wihlamok Kicholen luchundi 

Wematan akomen luchundi. 

15. Witehen wemiluen 
Wemaken nihillen. 

16. Nguttichin Lowaniwi 
Nguttichin Wapanawi 
Agamunk topanpek 
Wulliton epannek. 

17. Wulelemil W shakuppek 
Wemopannek hakhsinipek 
Kitahikan pokhakhopek 

18. Tellenchen Kittapaki nillawi 
Wemoltin gutikuni nillawi 
Akomen wapanaki nillawi 
Ponskan-ponskan wemiwi Olini 

19. Lowanapi Wapanapi Shawanapi 
Lanewapi Tamakwapi Tumewapi 
Elowapi Powatapi Wilawapi 
Okwisapi Danisapi Allumapi. 

20. Wemipayat guneunga Shinaking 
Wunkenapi chanelendam payaking 
Allowlendam kowiyey Tulpaking. 



TILLES, collected in 1498 by ROMAN &/c. 
with additions by DANGLERIA and 
others, Notes, Remarks, and Ancient 

Roman was a Jeromitan friar, come with 
Columbus, who began to convert the Hay- 
tians in 1496, and collected their traditions, 
after learning their language, out of the 
Areitos or songs and hymns used in festi 
vals. He wrote them in 1498 by order of 
Columbus, and they are inserted at large 
in his life by his son ; but were almost ne 
glected by Irving. They give us not only 
an insight into the belief, religion, traditions 
of the Antillian people ; but also a com 
pendium of fragments on their annals. 
Although very desultory, much less connec 
ted than those of Mexico, the Linapis, Ong- 
wis &c., and destitute of chronology ; yet 
they afford an essential addition to Ameri 
can history, and the ancient accounts about 
the Atlantis and Antilles. 

In order to bring them into a kind of 
order, they shall be analyzed, reduced to 
a succession of events and divided into 3 
parts, 1. Cosmogony and Theogony, 2. 
the flood and primitive history, 3. ancient 


history previous to Columbus or 1492. A 
fourth part foreign to these traditions would 
be their annals since that time, and till the 
extinction of the nation; which shall be 
given hereafter, with the account of the 
language, and civilization What is pecu 
liar to these traditions among the Ameri 
cans, are the metamorphoses of men into 
beasts &c., as in Ovid. 

The nation who furnished these annals, 
was the Haytian of Hayti, a branch of the 
nation dwelling also in Cuba, and filling 
the Lucayes and smaller Antilles : whose 
collective proper name was TAINO meaning 
noble. But they acknowledged as brothers, 
many tribes of the continent under the col 
lective name of GUATIAOS brothers, this 
was ascertained in 1520 by Figueroa. 
(See Herrera.) These Guatiaos were the 
Aruac nations and tribes, that were not 
cannibals. These tribes as enumerated by 
Figueroa in 1520 were in the Antilles the 

1. Haytians, 2. Cubans, 3. Jamaicans, 4. 
Boriquans (Porto Rico), 5. Cairis that 
dwelt in Trinidad, Barbuda, Marmagitas 
and Gianis Islands. While those of the 
continent were the 1. Aruacas of Guyana, 

2. Paracurias of Cubagua, 3. Urinatos of 
Oronoc, 4. Pavonas of Cariaco, 5. Cariatis, 
6. Cumanas, 7. Chiribichis, 8. Coquibocoa, 
9. Unatos. These five last were intermixt 
with the Canibas or Caribas, the cannibal 
tribes, foes of the Guatiaos, which are the 
Galibis and Carib tribes; that had deso- 


lated and conquered most of the eastern 

All the Tainos spoke the same language 
divided into several dialects; but under 
stood reciprocally. D Angleria tells us in 
1512 that two distinct languages were used 
in Cuba, the eastern was a mere dialect of 
Hayti ; but in the west was a very different 
language not understood; this was the 
Cami derived from the Olrncca of Oaxaca 
or the Maya of Yucatan ; they having sent 
there a colony, and founded a kingdom. 
(see the Maya History.) In Hayti there 
was also in the center of the island a king 
dom of Mayas? the people were called 
Mayo-riexes or Macoryxes, (meaning 
Maya people). They spoke a language 
different from the Haytian (Dangleria) 
divided into 3 dialects Cayabo, Cubaba, 
and Baichagua. This kingdom of stran 
gers was called Cubaba or Caibaba, and 
Ziguayos. They are called Caribs by 
some authors ; but erroneously. (1) 

Many other additional traditions on the 
Antilles are scattered in early writers, 
D Angleria, Gomara, Herrera, Munoz, 
Acosta, St. Mery, Oviedo, Columbus, Brig- 
stock, Rochefort, Edwards, Garcia, Laet, 
&c. which shall be partly noticed here as 
a sequel to Roman, and all connected as a 
general outline of a history of the Antillian 

Having succeeded to make out a fine 
vocabulary of nearly three hundred words 


of the Taino dialects, collected from Ro 
man, Columbus, Dangleria, Munoz, Las- 
Casas, Herrera, Gili, Humboldt, Vater 
&c. and another of about 150 words of 
the Cairi or Eyeri language of the Aruac 
Islanders out of Dudley, Rochefort &c. 
I will be enabled to translate and elucidate 
nearly all the Taino historical names and 
allusions, so as to clear up the annals by 
original etymologies. The orthography 
will be Spanish, J must be pronounced as 

The Haytians had besides these songs, 
other annals ; since the priests taught his 
tory, and the origin of things to the sons of 
the nobles. They had also perhaps pecu 
liar symbols to keep their records, since 
Dangleria mentions that they had paintings 
of beasts, tygers, eagles &c. on cotton, 
hung to walls. St. Mery says that in 1787 
was found in the mountains of Guanaminto 
a tomb with a stone of 6 feet covered with 
hieroglyphs ! and in the mountains of Lim- 
be, engravings of human figures on a ser 
pentine rock ; besides many sculptures in 
Caves. Columbus saw in 1492 in Inagua 
one of Lucayes a gold medal with letters 
on it ! If we had figures of these hiero 
glyphs and engraved symbols, we should 
probably obtain another clue to American 
history and graphic systems. But they are 
probably lost by neglect like those of North 
America ! The Antilles being on the way 
from the east to the continent must have 


served as a stepping place to many nations 
on their passage to the continent. (2) 
1st Part. Theogony and Cosmogony. 

1. Fact. The Supreme God, bears 
five names or titles given by Roman and 
Dangleria in two dialects, and is male or 

By Roman By Dangleria Meanings* 

1. Attabei Attabeira Unic-Being. 

2. Jemao Mamona Eternal. 

3. Guacas or Apito Guaca-rapita Infinite. 

4. Apito or Siella Liella Omnipotent. 

5. Zuimaco Guimazoa Invisible. 

Roman calls it female, Dangleria a male 
God. The titles of this god are sufficient 
to indicate the supreme God of nature, and 
they have astonishing analogies with the 
primitive God of Asia and Europe, the 
Basks, Pelasgians, Atlantes, Guanches &c* 
The most common name was the first, in 
Cuba Atabex. This and other great Gods 
were not sculptured in idols. The Chil- 
lians had similar names for the Supreme 
God. (3) 

2. Fact. This God was father or mo 
ther of another great God dwelling in the 
sun with a double name, variable in the 

First Name. Second Name. 

By Roman locahuna Guamaarocon. 

By Dangleria locauna Guamaonocon. 

In Cuba Yocahuna Guamaoxocoti. 

In Jamaica Yocahuna .-..-. 

In Boriquen lacana Guamanomocon. 

By Oviedo lovana Guamamona. 

Variations locavagharaa Guaraochyna. 


The explication of these names is not 
given ; but they are identic with the gods 
of the Cantabrians, and Guanches of Ca 
nary islands. The first appears to be the 
JEHOVAH and YAO of the Orientals, and is 
evidently the HUNAKU or Supreme God of 
the Mayas. The second name means 
Lord of the World (Gttama-ocon) and is 
a title. (4) 

3. Event. This last God made the 
World, the Heavens Turei, and the Earth 
before the terrestrial sun and moon ; also 
the ZEMIS or angels, who are male and 
female lesser gods, worshipped in idols, and 
intercessors with the great gods. In the 
dialects Zemes, Chemes, Chemis. 

All the ancestors are since called Zemis: 
their worship was spread through America, 
under various names, and forms : as well 
as in the east. They are the 

Shemayim (Heavenly) of the Hebrews. 

Shemsia of the Pehlavis of Persia. 

Samana <$ Hamsa of the Hindus. 

Shams of the Arabic. 

Esmun, Saman of the old Irish. 

Eshman (devil) of the Carthuls of Cau 

Sumari of Thibet, Chuman of Tartary. 

Camus, a synonym of Magi of Persia. 

Shin of the Chinese. 

Zamzumin ancient giants of Arabia. 

Chamin tip Zaones of Egypt, 

Chama of the Phrygians. 

Chamina of the Etruscans. 


Zcones $ Zanim of the Ammonians. 

Zamonts (blest) of the Lybians. 

Lemes, Zanes and Annas of the Pelas- 

Chemin, Shemsho, Naemas and Zamiel 
of Aram or Syria and Phenicia. Chema- 
rim Priests. 

Zin, Kami and Kamona of Japan and 

While in America we find the Chemim 
of the Carib women, 

Tezmin of the Mayas. 

Inama of the Apalachis. 

Manito of the Linapis. 

Camayos of the Peruvians. Which are 
all identic in meaning Angels, Spirits and 
their idols. This name changes elsewhere 
in sound : just like Enzel in Tentonic, 
4 T hich has the import of El, Aones, and 
Zemes, is root of our Angel now pro 
nounced Endjel. This oriental connection 
of ideas, names and worship, appears to 
be evident. They are not less in Turei 
heaven, Uran, Turan of the primitive 
nation &c. 

4th Event. Some of these ZEMIS became 
bad beings, and devils Tuyra, who send 
diseases, hurricanes (Furacan), earth 
quakes and thunders to desolate the earth 
and mankind. 

The names of Tuyra for devil and evil 
has analogies throughout the earth. The 
most striking are 


Out of America. 

Zitura of Basks. 

Guirati of Biscayans. 

Vetura in Bali of Pallis. 

Tororu of Nukahiva island. 

Yarua of the Berber Atlantes. 

Yurena of the Guanches Atlantes. 

Daruj, P-ayri of Zend. 

Tarug of Celts. 

Tairl in Turkish. 

Taliijri of Tahiti. 

fara, Wara of Japan. 

Tarada of the Papuas. 

Uritiram Synonym of Shiva. 

Teripis of Oscans. 

Tyranos of Greeks. 

In America. 

Yares of the Tayronas the Cyclops or 
forgers of Santa M arta. 

Sura of Poyays. 

Tziri of Poconchi. 

Huraqui, Sura of Apalachi. 

Twirl of the Yaquis. 

Kiuras of the Powhatans. 

Tarahu, of the Tarahumaras. 
Prororu of Cumana, derived from Pre- 
gonero another subsequent devil of Hayti. 

By the change of R to L, we have the 
Tulas and Atlantes of America. See To- 
raguva of 10th Event. 

5th Event. The good Zemis were ap 
pointed to make the earth and men, and to 
rule over both. Guabanzex, a female 


Zemis, made the air and water, and be 
came the goddess of the ocean and winds. 

This will answer to the first period of 
the earth creation, when the water was 
above the land, and the Rkio of Moses 
was divided. The name appears to mean 
the windy. (5) 

6th Event. The male Zemis JAIA (Khaya, 
the earth) made the earth and islands ; he 
is the Aion of Sanchoniation. Every land 
and island is animated. The island of Hayti 
was a great animal like a turtle ; the head 
and mouth was in the east, the west end of 
it was a long tail, called Quaca-iarimd 
(country of the Vent). The caves were 
the holes of the body, venerated and used 
afterwards as temples and tombs. 

This notion, and comparison of islands 
with turtles, recalls to mind the primitive 
turtle land of the Chinese, Hindus, Lina- 
pis &/c. Jala or Kaya for land has affi 
nities all over the world and is a primitive 
word. (6) 

*7th Event. JAIA afterwards had a son, 
who was called Jaia-El, Higuera, or Hi- 
buera earth-son gourd. 

This first man like Adam is son of the 
earth, and an EL or Angel, Elohim of the 
orientals; it means in Haytian, son, off 
spring, family and tribe. It will often recur 
in subsequent history, in the singular for 
the plural. The plurals were Eli, Hi, 
gu&ili. Gua is only the article This or 
Such. (7) 


8th Event. The sun and moon called 
Boiniael and Maroio by Roman; but 
Binthaitel and Marohu by Dangleria and 
Ovieda, come out of the cave Jovovava: 
they are Zemis and foes of mankind. A 
cave with the same name was their temple 
in Hayti. Dangleria calls it lovana-boina 
Jove Solar. 

The exact time of this appearance is 
doubtful, and there appears to be two 
blended events, one of cosmogony alluding 
to the sun being long obscured by the pri 
mitive misty atmosphere, another historical 
alluding to the solar and lunar dynasties of 
Asia or America. The meaning of Jovo 
vava or Kovo-vava is cave of fathers, both 
primitive names. The solar and lunar 
names have many analogies elsewhere, 
among which the chief are 

Names of the Sun. 

Oin, Oein of Arabs and Ethiopia. 

Oboh, Baton, old Egyptian. 

Baon, Oan of Assyrians. 

Ian of the Etruscans. 

Belen of the Gauls. 

Bun of the Zend. 

Abolion of the Pelasgians. 

Abloin of the Thessalians. 

Ntiele of the Illyrians. 

Bian of the Ausonians. 

Anactes of the Mysians. 

Names of the Moon. 

Yarho of the Syrians. 

Aohri of the Tibus. 


Warha of the Ethiopians. 

Carara of the Etruscans. 

Teoro of the Betoys, S. A. 

Heriho of Canaan. 

Humuri of Old Arabic. 

Matuare of Carthul, Caucasus. 

Maraca of Guaramis, S. A. 

Marama of Polynesia. 

Kamar in Maroco. 

Kamaria in Pehlvi. 

Crumara in Nubian. 

Most of these synonyms and analogies 
$re found in the most ancient languages : 
to which may be added that in the ancient 
Haikan language of Armenia, the sun and 
moon were called Noah! and Morante^ 
names also of Noah and his wife. 

9th Event. The female Zemis, Coatris- 
quid makes the springs and streams to flow 
over the earth, and became their goddess. 

This is another period of oriental cosmo 
gony, that of the irruption of subterranean 
waters and rain, which in the bible is pos 
terior to Adam. The name of the Zemis is 
of doubtful meaning, probably Coatris-quia, 
hollow-quite. Coa or Cua was the name 
of ancient hollow temples all over America. 
Quia is found in Quisqueia oldest name of 
Hayti or the great (land) universal. 

Wth Event. Taragava-el and Corocora 
or EpUeguanita, two male Zemis of the 
woods and hunters, made the trees and 
beasts. This includes probably two events 
anterior to the men, unless they be men, 


The meanings of these Zemis which 
might guide us, are quite doubtful. Ta- 
raguva resembles Tayra and also 7\irei 
heaven; but Epileguanita was probably 
the ancient god of the Caracal or Beastly- 
men, since it was represented by a beast 
or quadruped ; while all the other Zemis 
as men and women. Ili-guanita would 
mean in Haytian children of the people. 
Therefore I presume that these are per 
sonifications of the ancient hunters, or men 
of the woods with the beastly and savage 
men of early times. Roman calls the se 
cond Corocore, synonyme of Caracara. 
Part II. Antidiluman History and Flood. 

llth Event. JAIA-EL rebels against his 
father JAIA and wants to kill him ; a war 
fare, in which Jaia-El is killed by his father, 
who puts his bones into a gourd. Higuera, 
or Hibucra, and people the land of that 

This refers to the fall of man and the 
wars of the Titans. The name for bones 
is omitted, it would perhaps afford another 
clue. Many American nations venerate 
and animate bones. Dangleria says, that 
Jaia peopled all the islands of the sea with 
these bones. 

Vlth Event. JAIA being childless marries 
Itiba-Jatuvava from whom he has 4 twin 
sons called Dimivan, who became after 
wards Cara-cara-cols or the great Cara- 
cols, the great beastly beings; but their 
mother dies at their birth. 


Itiba means woman ancient and alludes 
perhaps to Thibet, refuge, or land of Noah. 
(/, is the article the). Jatuvava perhaps 
Japhet-father, but in Aruac Kati-uiua 
means the moon heavenly. The name of 
Dimivan is remarkable, being identic with 
the Demavends or antidiluvians of Persia, 
called Daicand in the Zendavesta, the 
Demoi or old people of the Pelasgians, the 
Demons of many nations. The Caras and 
Cols are found all over America and Asia.(8) 

13th Event. AHIACAVO (grand father) or 
Baia-manicoel an ancestor of the Dimi- 
van, forms the nation of CON-EL, at Basa- 
manaco, and invents agriculture, with the 
art of making cakes and bread. 

The Dimivan acknowledge him as grand 
father of mankind. CON-EL is certainly a 
personification, meaning the sons or Elohim 
of CON, who is the primitive Lybian Her 
cules RON or KHON ; and is found in 
Peruvian history as the first legislator of 
Peru. The XONS or CONES were the 
oldest people of Spain and Italy, same as 
Xdones of Greece. Their god was XON 
or Konah. Basamanaco is inexplicable 
unless it alludes to the primitive antidiluvian 
Manaco or Manco of Peru. Ba is dwell 
ing, Samana an island near Hayti. 

\4th Event. The four brothers Dimivan 
meeting a mute Conel, making bread, ask 
him for some; but he only gives them in 
stead Cogioba or Cohiba which is tobacco: 
this happened at the door of Basamanaco. 


This fable indicates an intercourse of the 
Dimivans and the Conels which are pro 
bably a branch of the Atlantes or Lybians, 

I5th Event. This refusal of bread was 
the cause of a quarrel and war, in which 
Conel kills or destroys one of the brothers 
or tribes of Dimivan Caracol, but a turtle 
Hicotea came out of his body, or an island 
thus called, as Hayti was. This Conel con 
queror was Baia-mani-coel, whose name 
means Father of food celestial; but Baya 
is also the ocean. 

This indicates a great war, and probably 
alludes to that of the Atlantes. (9) 

16th Event. The Dimivans, probably 
in revenge, broke the gourd of JAIAEL 
(Khayahel) ; but a flood of waters issue 
from it and drowns the land. 

This deluge is called Niquen : there is 
no indication in Roman of the men who 
were destroyed, nor who were saved and 
how ; but in Cuba was found a more ample 
tradition of the flood as follow. 

17th Event. Three Behiques or priests 
who come to Cuba later, taught them that 
the flood had been general, had broken the 
land ; and that a good man had been saved 
in a big boat with his family. That many 
animals were also in the boat, a vulture 
and dove are mentioned. 

Herrera and others relate this, but in dif 
ferent words, and without native names. 
Some have supposed this account made 
out by the Spanish priests ; but it appears 


to refer to a tradition brought by the Ol- 
mecas or Mayas in Cuba, being very similar 
to the Mexican accounts. 

I8th Event. Another subsequent flood 
although omitted by Roman, is alluded to 
by others, Garcia says that Hayti and Cuba 
were then cut asunder and separated from 
Yucatan. Dangleria says that the islands 
Lucayas that then joined to the great 
islands, were divided by irruptions of the 
sea. It is the second flood of Peleg, which 
in the Antilles broke the islands by volcanic 
explosions. It is impossible to say what 
events of the next period, may belong to 
the interval between the two floods ; but 
probably some of them. All these antidi- 
luvian events appear to belong to a different 
country than the Antilles, which did not 
even then exist, at least in their actual 
state, and may properly be referred to the 
island Atlantis or the eastern hemisphere. 
It was at this last cataclysm that the Antil 
les assumed their actual shape and number. 
Part III. Ancient History. 

19th Event. After the floods the men 
dwelt in caves on the mountain Cauta in 
the land of Caanau or Caunana or Cao-na. 

The mountains of Cauta must have been 
the refuge of men at one of the floods : they 
answer probably to the Cuta of the Hindus, 
name given to many rocky lands and capes 
besides mountains. The Ceuta mountain 
of Africa south of Gibraltar, was one of 
them, also called Abyla from the Cabyks 


or Nomadic Berbers. Dangleria states a 
tradition that men were created on that 
mountain. Cauta although unexplained 
is identic with Icota turtle, Ca-uta land 
raised. Caona means golden. 

The land Caanau of Roman, Caunana 
of Dangleria, has been mistaken for the 
land of Canaan by some writers : others 
deem it Florida. Both are wrong. The 
Haytians did not come from North Ame 
rica; but may have sent colonies there. 
They came from the east, South America 
and Africa, or the Atlantis. The name 
means land of Noah ? (Caa-Nau, Cau- 
Nana). Caunia was the ancient name of 
Asia Minor and Caria, the first Carians 
were Caunians, a Pelagian tribe which 
expelled by the Leleges, settled the Gre 
cian islands, and Lybia part of which was 
called Caani. The Andkim of Syria 
giants dwelt in Ca-anak. The Khaoni 
were the ancestors of Epirians and Illy- 
rians. Cauni was a mauritanian tribe. 

%Qth Event. The sun and moon are two 
great Zemis called Binthaitel (sun divine) 
and his wife Marohu (moon), come out of 
the cave lovana-boina (Jehovah-Solar), 
and rule the world, establishing the solar 
and lunar dynasties. 

This historical event must be distin 
guished from the 8th. This refers to the 
solar dynasties of Asia and Africa. It 
must be noticed that similar places were 
often shown in Hayti, as the same names 


had been applied by the subsequent settlers, 
even when the event had happened else 
where. In this case, these solar caves 
were temples in Hayti, where the figures 
of the sun and moon were worshipped, and 
prayed to for rain ; but Herrera says they 
had their hands bound, which indicates a 
conquest. Pilgrims went to those caves, 
from all parts of Hayti. It was in the land 
of the king Mauziation-El (Roman) or 
Machiunech (Dangleria) ; but whether 
these were former dynasties and kings or 
late rulers, is difficult to ascertain. 

%Ist Event. Maroco-El (lunar son) called 
Machocha-El by Dangleria, held the sway 
over men, who were still in Cauta and Caa- 
nau, and kept them confined to the caves. 

This indicates a lunar dominion over 
mankind somewhere, and a state of con 
finement: Perhaps in South America; in 
Peru caves are also the first dwellings of 

2%d Event. The men were divided into 
double tribes or two nations, the principal 
or largest and of best men was called 
Cazibagiaga R. Cazibaxagua D. 
(Royal Xagua) and the smaller Amaia- 
naba R. Amayauna D. (Mayas ?), 
ruled by Cazics for kings. 

We have here two nations well indicated. 
The first the Giaga or Shaguas, indicate 
the Lunar tribe, the Chia of the Muyzcas, 
and other South American tribes Achaguas 
of Oronoc, the Chaguays or Changas of 


Peru, Agaches or Agaiz or Paraguay; 
but above all the Cacfia or Xauxa antidi- 
luvian people of Peru. While in the second 
we trace again the Amazons or Atlantes, 
one of their main African tribes being the 
Amantes of Solin, another the Baniabas 
of Ptolemy, both in Lybia. In America the 
progeny is found in the Mayas of Yucatan, 
the Maynas of East Peru, the Mamayant 
of Brazil, the Mbayas of Chaco &c. 

The important name of Cazic for kings 
begins to appear : it is evidently oriental, 
and its affinities will be shown in a note. (10) 
It is akin also to Kachi sun, in the Eyeri 
dialect: the Washil of the Nachez. 

%3d Event. MACHOCHA-EL was set by 
the sun to watch the caves r and many in 
habitants of the caves were killed by the 
sun, if they came out in the day time ; they 
could only come out at night to seek for 
food. (Dangleria) 

This either alludes to the great heat of 
the sun in Africa and the tropics, or to a 
dependance of the Lunar or Cave men 
upon the Solar men. Machocha has some 
affinities in the South American tribes; 
Machicuys of Tucumen, Machacalis of 
Brazil, Chaehas of Perou, Chanchones of 
Quixos &/c. 

Uth Event. Some men having dared to 
come in the day time, were changed into 
stones by the sun; (Ziba is stone): also 
Machokael for allowing it. 

This fable may allude to a war, between 


the Zibas stony or strong men and the 
solar tribes. These Zibas were probably 
the Zipas or princes of the Muyzcas. In 
Perou there is also a fable of men changed 
to stones at the primitive city of Tiahua- 
naco, which merely means a war and 
change of diminion. The name of Ziba 
for stone is primitive. See the Note for 
affinities. (11) 

25th Event. Another set of men, going 
to the shores to fish, were changed into 
Joboses (myrobolan or plumb trees) by the 

This metamorphose is peculiar to these 
fables : although the Mexicans called the 
Olmecas, fruit-people or Zapotecas. The 
analogies of Jobos or Kobos are found in 
Coyba of Darien, Cuba or Coaiba, the 
Mocobis of Chaco &c. Another war is 
probably meant by this, and the Jobos are 
a people. Have they any reference with 
the Jubas of Mauritania? who formed a 
divine and royal dynasty there. Juba was 
also the Jove or God of the Lybians, 
Several nations of Central and Mexican 
America had trees for emblems. 

26th Event. The dynasty of Giona or 
Hi-Auna begins to rule over the men of 
Caziba or royal caves in Cauta. 

This family of rulers or Cazics became 
famous afterwards as we shall see, as lead 
ers of tribes to America. We can easily 
perceive here the ancient Pelagian tribes 
of Ionia and Aones. Hi-Auna means 


thc-Aones. It was this dynasty or people 
that sent colonies to America: Oviedo 
says this happened in the time of Hesper 
12th king of Spain, about 750 years after 
the flood, or 1G58 years B. C. He deems 
the settlers Hesperians or Cantabrians. 
The root is ONA solar name of Lybians. 

27th Event. VAGONIANA a ruler of the 
Hi-Auna, went fishing from the cave, and 
became a bird or nightingale; who crossed 
the sea, and settled the island Mathinino 
(Martinico) with a people of women. 
Dangleria. His wife in the sea gives him 
two sons which became jewels Ziba and 
Guanin marble and metal. 

This is a positive voyage over the At 
lantic. Whenever we meet tribes of birds, 
in ancient history, they always mean tra 
vellers and colonies, and often passage over 
the sea in sailing boats, compared to birds. 
The first ships of the Scandinavians and 
Europeans seen in North America, were 
called birds by the natives. V and B in 
terchange in the Haytian language as in 
Greek ; Va-gon-iana, thus means Father- 
Solar-Iana. His people are called women, 
because unwarlike fishermen, or the Ama 
zon tribe. Martinico was the first island 
settled by them : it bears the name of 
Matinino in Roman, and was thus called 
yet in 1492, Garcia mentions the 2 sons 
and jewels. (12) 

28/7i Event. GUAGU-GIONA king of Caziba, 
sent Jadruvaba out of the caves, to collect 


the holy herb Digo in order to purify and 
wash the body ; but he was changed by the 
sun into a singing bird Giahuba-Bogiael 
(the-singer bird-divine), and never returns. 

We have here a second voyage by sea in 
a bird, and a contention with a solar people, 
caused by a trading voyage to procure some 
American commodity : Indigo probably 
which is identic with Digo. Jadru-caba 
or the father of Khadru, must be a new 
colonist. Khadru has hardly any analo 
gies in America ; but Giahuba in which 
he was changed has some. It appears 
analagous with the Yaoy and Shebaoy two 
Aruac tribes of Guyana, and thus Khadru 
might be the Aruac themselves ; same 
nation with the Haytians once, as the lan 
guages prove ; although extending to Tu- 
cuman and Patagonia. The name of 
Aruac or Aruagas was inexplicable : it 
may refer to this origin, or to the Rocou 
the red paint used by them. But Aruac 
may also mean Aluac ; akin to the Labuyu 
of the Caribs their vassals, and the Aluez 
vassals of the Nachez nation. Could they 
derive from the ALE angels of the east ; 
here reduced to servitude by foes ? 

29th Event. GUAGU-GIONA irritated that 
Jadru-vaba does not return, leaves the 
cave of Caziba in search of him, and went 
with men and women to the island Matini- 
no, where the women were left, while the 
men went to the land of Guanin. 

This is the third passage of the Atlantic, 


unless that of Vagoniana only mentioned 
by Dangleria arid Garcia be the same ; but 
they are likely to be successive tribes of 
lonas. That all the women should be left 
in Martinico is a fable, meaning that the 
weakest or fishing tribes settled there or in 
the islands ; while the warriors went to the 
American continent, called Guanin^ which 
has several meanings, land of Guanas or 
lizard men, or land of metals. It became 
afterwards the name of a peculiar metal 
formed by the natural or artificial amalgam 
of 18 parts gold, 6 silver, and 8 copper : 
and a tribe assumed the name. Guana or 
Guanos was the name of a large nation of 
South America; perhaps come from the 
Guans of the Canary islands ; but slightly 
related to the Aruacs by the languages: 
yet perhaps akin : it was spread east of the 
Andes, between the two tropics. (13) 

30//i Event. The children were left be 
hind, because afraid to cross, and were 
crying after their mothers; but became 
changed into Tona or opossums. Garcia 
says into Toa or frogs. 

There are no opossums in Hayti nor the 
small islands, nor in Africa. But they are 
plenty in South America, where the notion 
must have sprung. This fable and meta 
morphosis may imply a hidden meaning. 
The opossums are the only animals bearing 
their young in a pouch, as ships bear men. 
Could not this indicate other ships without 
sails, and thus no longer birds with wings ? 


TON is a remarkable word, since it is the 
root of Net-ton the Lybian neptunes or 
navigators. The twin TUN are the holy 
ancestors of the Chilians, Tona-ca (flesh 
our) is the ancestor or Adam of some 
Mexican nations. The frogs were the 
emblem of the Muyzcas ! 

31 st Event. GUABONITO a woman follows 
Guaga-Giona to the bigland of Guanin 
by swimming. He is well pleased with it, 
and calls her his own Biberozi (wife-lov 
ing): but as she was diseased he puts her 
apart in a Guanara, where she heals, and 
he makes her queen. 

A singular romantic fable, the disease of 
the woman is stated to be the syphilis ! 
G-uabo-rfito means fruit or Guava pear of 
man ! The allegory implies another colony 
following Guaga, not by swimming ; but 
with paddles or on rafts ; probably a part 
of the lesser tribe of Amaiuna or Amazons, 
so often called women in antiquity; although 
a powerful African people. All the women 
left in the islands might be of such a tribe, 
and since become the Mayas of Yucatan, 
Hayti &c., with the Manas or Manoas, 
the Amazons of South America. 

32d Event. ANACACUGIA (flower of Ca 
cao) brother of this wife or ally of Guaga, 
runs away from him on the back of a manati 
or seal, and goes back to the women of 

This implies a separation of tribes, one 
returning to the islands, where they probably 


forme 1 the Cairi nation. The seal used 
for boats, is a third fable, found in Greece; 
boats are thus compared to birds, opossums 
and seals. Many American languages 
animate boats and ships. This seal must 
mean a Manati, or sea cow ; real seals not 
being found in the Antilles. If the name 
was Manati, it has affinities with theAma- 
yuna or Ama-Zons tribe. Ma-ti-ni-no 
is in Haytian great-mount-tlic-good, while 
Hana-ti is moving mountain. Has not 
Anacacu a reference to the Anakim of 
Asia, the Cacus of Europe, and the Tarn- 
anacu of South America ? 

33d Event. Hi-AuNA father of Guago- 
gtona comes with his son to the land of 
Guanin, and being the grandfather of all 
the tribes, they receive the names of Hi- 
auna ; which is afterwards changed to 
children of Guanin. Hin Gua-ili Gua-nin 
(the-plural such-children such-Nin), and 
lastly the whole united nation is called 

The Aones came then also to America, 
and there was a confederacy of the tribes. 
Gtta-gu, Gua-go and Gim-ga, may be 3 
spellings of a same name ; but they might 
also be three successive and distinct tribes 
of Giona. Gua-bonito in one instance is 
made another lord or tribe, instead of a 
wife of Guago. 

31th Event. ALBEBORA and his son Al- 
bebora-El) were Also Guanini lords or 
Cazics, who came with the Giona tribe. 


This indicates again another nation. The 
name is remarkable, because it resembles 
Albion and Bora, two primitive nations of 
the north, which settled England and the 
boreal regions, becoming the Hyper-Bo- 
reans of later times. Perhaps these Boras 
are identic with the Aboras and Aborts of 
ancient Italy, the mountaineers since called 
Abort-genes by the Greeks. 

35th Event. Another Guaga-giona II. or 
Guaba-giona is mentioned afterwards, 
whose son became the Guanhii tribe. 

Guaba means both the father and the 
Gnava pear. The succession of these 
Gionas is very obscure ; but many are 
probably omitted, and the whole poetical 
records allude to the most famous of the 
dynasty or nation. Guanini implies the 
Golden tribe. 

36th Event. The settlement of the Gu- 
aninis in Hayti was from Matinino and the 
east ; being exiled from Matinino, they are 
led by Camo who begins the kingdom of 
Cabonao in Hayti; they settle on the fiver 
Bahabotri, where they built their houses, 
and afterwards the great temple of Camo- 
tzia. They gave to the island the name of 
Quisqueia or great universe ; but after 
wards Hayti, meaning land rough or hilly. 

This important event is best given with 
those details by Dangleria : while Roman 
appears to mix it with the settlement of Gu- 
anin. Yet Quisqueia was more probably 


the first name given to South America, 
rather than to Hayti : another name for 
wliich was Bohio or habitations. Camo 
or Giiamo means lord or master, Tzla is 
temple. The exile of the Guaninis from 
the islands, must allude to another revolu- 
and perhaps invasion. This Camo, 
probably the same as the Cami or 
Coma of Cuba in later time, Comayagua 
of Honduras ; which assimilate the first 
civilized Ilaytians with the tribes of Central 
America. It might have happened that 
these Camos were Mayas and the ances 
tors of the Mayo-riexcs. The history of 
the Mayas of Otolum, and Central Ame 
rica, will be connected with these annals 
hereafter ; but much is left for conjecture. 

37th Event. Other exiles of Matinino 
settle at the island Cdblni now Turtle isl 
and ; and near it on the north shore of 
Hayti, from whence they spread through 
the island, which is called Bouki or Boliio, 
meaning full of towns. 

Dangieria mentions this likewise. House 
and town or habitation, are synonymous in 

38th Event. They found some Cara 
coles or Taracolas, crabs ! or beastly men, 
dwelling in the island. The Guaninis 
wanting women, took some Caracols beasts 
for wives, and made them suitable women, 
by washing them, and giving them to eat 
the fruit Inriri CahumaL This was done 
by a Vagoniana II. 


These Caracols had then survived the 
flood or come before the Guaninis, the name 
of the fruit that made them women, if ex 
plained, might elucidate this event ; hut 
the signification was not given; another 
version will suggest other important analo 
gies. (14) ^ 

39th Event. These Caracols depriveW)f 
their women, took other female beasts for 
wives (another tribe) and from this union 
most of the Haytians descended, becoming 
Anaborias or vassals of the Guaninis. 

Anaboria means flower or lizard of la 
bor ! these might be descended from Albe- 
bora. This name for bondsmen, boors or 
laborers, was widely spread in America, 
and has affinities all over the world, even 
with the Latin labor. (15) 

4Qth Event. These first inhabitants of 
Hayti, fed on dates, bananas, cocos, fruits, 
nuts, herbs, yams, roots, onions, mushrooms : 
until taught the use of Cazabi or bread by 
Boition, with maize, cotton, mandioc &c. 

Another fact of Dangleria, very natural 
indicating the tropical food of old times. 

41st Event. Michetaiiri Guauana, was 
the leader of the first colony to Coaibai 
(death house) in the land of Soraia (setting 
sun), and became the king of it. There 
the people are called Goeiz (phantoms or 
ghosts) and go about by night ; but are not 
dead people whose name is Opia. 

Coaibai is either Cuba or Coyba in Da- 
rien, or both. It became the paradise of 


the Haytians, placed in Cuba or further 
west, and a place of delight. The names 
and allusions are remarkable. They assi 
milate to those of the Greeks &c. about 
the fortunate islands of the west : those of 
the Orientals and Hebrews about the island 
Elisha, and the Sheol or place of souls, the 
Hebrew Plutonic region. Soraya for set 
ting sun, is identic with Surya of the Hin 
dus : whence came Syria the W 7 est, and 
even our word sorrow ; while Sol comes 
from Sheol. Azil sun in Pelasgian, is akin 
to Elisha whence our word Azylum ! Goeiz 
in akin to ghost, Ghaib in Syrian, Coyocop 
of the Nachez, Goz of the Vilelas. Opi 
has affinities every where. Michetauri is 
perhaps a synonym of Afacki-tuyra great 
devil, Guauana is such-Auna. Perhaps 
this fable alludes to an anterior event and 
the passage to America of a former Hi- 
Auna. (16) 

42d Event. AUMATEX a great Cazic mar 
ries the female Zemi Giwbanzex, goddess 
of waters and wind, and she has two sons 
Guataura and Pregonero, who become 
male Zemis. 

It is impossible to say if this event be 
longs to this time or to the cosmogony. I 
presume it is historical, alluding to new 
tribes, and perhaps foreign to Hayti. The 
names are difficult to explain, nor is it 
stated what these sons performed ; but 
being sons of water and wind ; they must 
have led colonies by sea elsewhere. They 


are perhaps the ancestors of the Guataios 
and the Puruays ? (17) 

43d Event. COROCORO the quadruped 
Zemi of the Caracols? was the ancestor 
of two lines of kings, Guamorete and Gua- 
tabanex, who rule in Hayti. His temple 
was in Sacaba, and his high-priest was 
called Cavava-Niovava. Cave father and 
our father. 

This alludes to different tribes than the 
Guaninis : Coro was a tribe in Cumana. 
Perhaps this is another version of the 
10th Event, or a proper indication of the 
subsequent institutions of the Caracol na 
tion, when more civilized, and become the 

44th Event. A rrival in Hayti, Cuba &c. 
of the first Bohito (old man), a priest and 
legislator, called Boition by Dangleria, 
meaning both Priest-solar arid Old Ion : he 
introduces agriculture and the use of bread, 
divides the nation into 3 castes, Tainos, or 
nobles, Bohitos or priests, Anaborias or 
vassals, and these last into tillers, hunters 
and fishermen. He becomes pontif, settles 
the religion; establishing mysteries and 
oracles, the worship of Zemis, and many 
other institutions, holydays, festivals, reli 
gious dances, schools &c., declaring the 
land common to all, like the sun and water. 

There are at least 3 Bohitos, that came 
to Hayti and Cuba, and civilized the peo 
ple; but it is difficult to distinguish the 
deeds of each. They were probably priests 


leading more civilized colonies from the 
east or from America. Their name which 
is variously spelt or varies in dialects was 
also Buhuti, Boitio, Bauti, Buhui, Bo- 
yeto &/c., is akin to the Boyez, Poyes, 
Plazcs, Payes of South America, used by 
the Aruacs, Guaranis and Carib tribes, 
P laches of Tamanacs, Bauti of Dabaiba, 
Papas of Central America, Bochlca of 
Muyzcas ; but the names of priests all over 
ancient eastern nations, have still more 
analogies (See the Note 18.) and there 
fore they came from the east. The civili 
zation and religion introduced or improved 
by them is also oriental ; it was more ad 
vanced than we are aware ; since they had 
ample fields and orchards, roads and canals, 
schools in which they taught history, reli 
gion, medicine and useful arts. Of their 
astronomy nothing has been preserved, nor 
of their hieroglyphs. 

45th Event. Bohito II. or Buhui-tihu 
(old eminent) comes and improves still fur 
ther the rites &c., becoming high-priest. 
He introduces medicines, charms, the use 
of cotton and cloth, burning of bodies in 
stead of mummies as formerly, the holy 
herbs Gneyo and Zochen <$. 

This is all what can be collected on this 
second law-giver, and he is even blended 
with the next, except by name. 

46th Event. Bohito III. or Balo-habao 
(sea-lyre) comes next, introducing music, 
sacred instruments called after him, and 


probably the rites of the triple named god 
of the Hindu and Mayan trimurti : Bugia, 
Aiba and Bradama: who became the 
Zemi of war, or perhaps led to a war. 

This god with three names is evidently 
Vishnu, Shiba and Brama of India : found 
in Yucatan as Izona, Echtiah and Bacab. 
See my dissertation in Atlantic Journal, on 
similar names of triple God all over Ame 
rica and the east. It does not follow that 
this worship came direct from India ; but 
it might come through the Pelagians, who 
had it as Bram, Amen and Vix, inverted 
among the x\usonians, Oscans. The same 
about a god creator preserver and destroyer 
was prevalent in Asia, Iran, Thibet, Syria, 
Egypt, Greece. Etruria, and even the Ca 
nary islands. The Mayoriex came probably 
with Bohito III. 

43th Event. Happy state of this civilized 
people, hardly knowing war, passing the 
time in festivals, dancing, singing and mak 
ing love : whence called the Fortunate isl 
ands, by the navigators that happened to go 
so far. They dwelt in wooden houses and 
had towns of 1000 houses. Herrera. 

This period is indicated by twenty au 
thentic sources of ancient history, and the 
ancient traditions of Europe about the 
happy land of the west, Elisha or Elysium, 
Hesperides, Cocana of the Spaniards &c.: 
besides the happy state in which Hayti 
was found. See the account of the ancient 
notions and communications with America, 


and the great Atlantis : the most explicit is 
found in Diadorus Siculus, as follows. 

48th Event. The Phenicians driven by 
a storm, while going from Gades to Africa, 
discover the large island ATLANTIS, many 
days in the ocean west of Lybia. It was 
very fruitful, with mountains, large plains 
and navigable rivers; with many woods 
and fruits, fine valleys, plenty of wild beasts 
and fish. The air is mild and healthful ; 
it is a residence fit for gods : the inhabitants 
are a strong and healthful people ; they 
have many towns, with stately buildings, 
houses of pleasures, gardens, orchards &c. 
Diod. Book V. 

The translators of Diodorus have blun 
dered so far as to deem this island Madeira 
or the Canaries ; which are small islands, 
without streams, and the first without inha 
bitants. It can only apply to Hayti, or 
even the continent of South America. 

49/7z Event. A black people came to 
Hayti from the south or south-east, who 
had darts of Guanin metal, and were called 
the Black Guaninis. 

This tradition preserved by Herrera, 
Garcia and Charlevoix, indicates a colony 
of Negroes or men painting black, from 
South America. They might be the black 
Negroes of Quarequa mentioned by Dan- 
gleria, or some other American Negro 
nation, of wh .ch thsre are many. See my 
account of ancient Black Nations of Ame 
rica. Dangleria mentions two wild tribe? 


of savages in Hayti towards 1500, one 
speechless ! (which means they spoke a 
different language) probably a remain of 
the Caracols, another swift dwelling in 
caves, quite apart, seen in 1514 in Zauana 
of Guacarima. 

50th Event. Navigations of the Haytians 
and Cubans, settlements of the Lucayas isl 
ands, Jamaica, and probably some parts of 
Florida : mutual trade with Cuba and the 

These colonial and trading voyages must 
have begun long before and have been con 
tinual. Columbus met individuals in Cuba 
who had visited Hayti, Jamaica and Ya- 
maya, the Maya land or Yucatan. Yucayas 
or Lucayans knew Cuba, Hayti and Flori 
da, which was called Catttio says Fulgar, 
quoted by Cardenas, who deems the Antilles 
peopled from hence, blending it with Cauta 
the original seat of the Haytians. South 
America was once called Guanin, after 
wards Caribana w r hen it was overspread 
by the Carib tribes. The Nachez appear 
to have come from Cuba, The Cumanas 
knew Hayti and called it Atsi. 

5Ist Event. The Canibas (whence our 
Canibals) or the Caribas, (whence our 
Caraibes), a savage people, often feeding 
on human flesh, begin to spread to Guyana 
and South America; becoming bold navi 
gators also, they send war parties and 
colonies to the peaceful islands of the An 
tilles, and even to Florida. 


The Caribas evidently descended from 
the Galibis, and other akin nations of South 
America, did not originate in North Ame 
rica, as supposed by Bridgstock and a few 
others. Laborde who spent 20 years with 
them, and knew well their language, has 
published some of their traditions in 1704. 
Lon-quo was their original god, who made 
Racumon their chief or leader to America, 
who leads there the tribes of snakes, men, 
Cabatos-trees and birds. The true name 
of the nation was Call, those of the main 
were Cali-nago or Calibis, of the islands 
Cali-ponam. Rochefort &/c. See my 
Carib Traditions. 

5%d Event. The Calibis of Guyana after 
long wars with Alouague the kings of the 
Aruacas, send the general Timani to 
conquer the Aruacas Islanders, Cahiris, 
Eyeris fyc. who leads the tribe of Labou- 
yous (vassals) and conquer several islands, 
killing the men and keeping the women. 
Rochefort &c. 

The period of this invasion is unknown ; 
those who bring the Caribs from North 
America, make it much later of course ; 
but it is likely to be an old event : although 
several invasions are probably meant and 
blended. The Timanis and Labouyous 
must have effected this. They adopted 
many customs and partly the religion of 
the conquered women. The following tra 
dition belongs probably to the conquered 


53d Event. Once when living wretched 
and on the spontaneous fruits of the earth, 
Oubek-Eyeri (heaven man) a holy man 
drest all in white cotton, comes from hea 
ven (Qubek above). He first appears to 
a desolate old man Boyez, and teach him 
to build houses, to cultivate mandioc and 
make bread of it &c. 

This must have been a priest or bohito 
of Hayti, who tried to civilize the Caribs : 
unless it refers to anterior traditions. He 
taught religion also, that good men would 
go after death to the happy islands of the 
west, and become Chemin or Icheiri (Ze- 
mis ; while bad men should become Oume- 
kcua wanderers at sea, and Mabouyas 

54& Event. The Caribas in search of 
these fortunate islands go to Hayti and 
Cuba ; but are repulsed, and settle in Flo 
rida , where they extended inland, becom 
ing the tribes of Cofachi, Matica and 
Amana. They dwell there a long while 
often at war with the Apalachis, who con 
quer them and incorporate at last. 

See Brigstock for this fact, and the wars 
with the Apalachis ; the details belong to 
the history of North America and the na 
tions of Florida. 

55th Event. Some expelled Caribs hear 
ing by traders of Zigateo, steal some canos 
and run away to this island, one of the 
Lucayas ; well received ; but sent to Ayay 
(Santa Cruz) desert island, where they 


settle and increase. This happened to 
wards 1150 of our era. 

This positive fact begins the certain 
chronology of the Antilles ; but Brigstock 
is quite wrong in deeming these fugitives, 
the ancestors of all the Carib and Galibis 
tribes as far as Brazil. 

56tk Event. Civil wars in Hayti, attempt 
of some kings to become independent from 
the Bohitos government. The Cazic 
Gaamaretus despise his god or Zemi Co- 
rochotum, for which he is overcome in 
battle and his palace burnt. Dangleria. 

This indicates probably a revolution, and 
attempt to overthrow the ancient religion, 
perhaps before 1150. 

57th Event. CAZI-BAQUEL restores peace, 
and the worship of the great God Jocava- 
ghama, with the Zemi Tarugavael found 
in the woods. Meantime the god JOCAVA 
prophecies by an oracle that the Magua- 
cochios (great people clothed)would come, 
with fire and thunder to destroy or enslave 
the rebellious Haytians. This was under 
stood to apply to the Caribs, and Spaniards 
afterwards. (19) 

58th Event. This great king BAQUEL, 
begins a dynasty, and has many successors 
Gamanacoel, Guarionel, Guayaronel^ 
Guavanenechin, Guavavo-conel, Cara- 
marex, Guaramatex <$*c., who are the 
chief kings of Hayti. Guarionex was his 
successor when the Spaniards came. 

The ancestors of Guarionex had been 


kings or cazics from time immemorial in 
the great kingdom and valley of Maguana, 
180 miles long and 30 broad, running from 
east to west ; having from east to west the 
provinces Canobocoa, Hubabo, Cayaba, 
Maricoa, Bainoa. The river Bahuan runs 
through it, which is probably the same as 
Bahaboni, where settled the Guianims. 
They appear to have been at the head of 
the feodal system of Cazics and Tainos 
established in Hayti. All the other kings 
bearing them allegiance : and their dialect 
was the court language. 

59th Event. The island becomes divided 
into 5 principal kingdoms, with many pro 
vinces each having a Cazic. They were 
1. Caizimu in the east with 11 provinces, 
Higuey was the first of them, 2. Bainoa 
in the centre, the largest of all, belonging 
to the Baquel dynasty, with 24 provinces, 
Maguana being the first of them, 3. Gu- 
acarima, the west end, with 12 provinces, 
Xaragua being the main, 4. Hubaba, a 
small kingdom with 3 provinces in the 
south mountains, 5. Cotoy or Cayabo in 
the mountains of the north, held by the 
Mayoriex people, with 7 provinces, and 
the mountains Zibao. 

Dangleria gives the names of all these 
provinces, but he has omitted the kingdom 
of Marten in the north-west, he makes it 
only a province of Bainoa. Laet, Charle- 
voix and Munoz have given maps of old 
Hajti, with the situations of many, the 


rivers, towns, islands, mountains, lakes &c.; 
gee my Ancient Geography of the Antilles. 
6Qth Event. Meantime Cuba was also 
divided into 7 kingdoms, 1. Mayzi or Maiti 
opposite Hayti, 2. Bayamo west of it, 3. 
Cuetjba in the centre, whence the name of 
Cuba, probably the head kingdom, 4. Ca- 
maycgua or Camaguey inhabited by a 
different people, famous tribe, probably 
Camay a g uas of Horduras, or Olmecas, 
5. Xagva near the middle, 6. Macaca in 
the south opposite Jamaica, 7. Hanigu- 
anica at the west end where are the high 
mountains Ultima. t 

61st Event. The island of Jamaica was 
divided in two kingdoms. Boriquen also 
Buchena or Burichina (D) now Porto-Rico, 
formed one, but had 20 Cazics in as many 
valleys, the high mountains of Guayamo 
being desert. The Kucaijas (white isl 
ands) now Bahama, were numberless, the 
largest being Amana, Zigateo, Bahama, 
Bimini, Sumana, Yuma, Guanahani, Sao- 
moto, Abaco &c. The Cazics were much 
respected there, being also Bohitos or Be- 
hiques (priests) judges and stewards. La 
bor was in common and the daily food given 
from the public stores. Some islands were 
at war ; but only used sticks in their quarrels. 
Yet all the islands formed a single kingdom, 
the great Cazic resided at Saomoto. 

&2d Event. The Caribas of Ayay having 
multiplied, spread again over the eastern 
islands: they are repulsed in Boriquen; 


but meeting their ancient tribes in Curu- 
cueria now Guadeloupe : it becomes their 
chief island : whence they send war parties 
to 1000 miles off, even to the continent ; 
and occupy Galana now Marigalante, 
Matinino or Madinino now Martinique, 
Liamaca now Antigua, Liamuiga St. 
Christopher, Bayaraco St. Vincent, Be- 
quia Grenada &,c. called collectively Cali- 
aqiui the islands of the Calibis. 

63d Event. They molest the shores of 
Boriquen, where they are always repulsed, 
but often steal men and children to eat 

6th Event. They assail the shores of 
Hayti, where they are much feared ; sig 
nals by smoke are made when they appear. 
In Higuey and Caizimu, eastern regions of 
the island, the Haytians become warlike to 
defend themselves, and use poisoned arrows 
as they did. Elsewhere the Haytians used 
only darts, lances and macanas, peculiar 
wooden swords. 

65th Event. The Caribs went as far as 
the shores of Cuba, and desolated the south 
shores : the Cubans removing their towns 
inland. They were called Canibas and 
Canimas : and succeed in forming a settle 
ment at Baracoa to the south-east. 

66th Event. They were repulsed in their 
attempt against the \varlike Jamaicans who 
used arrows ; they do not appear to have 
molested the Yucayans, owing to their for 
mer alliance and gift af the island Ayay. 


These events are chiefly collected from 
Columbus own account, and personal nar 
ratives of his travels, with other retrospec 
tive hints by the Spanish writers. They 
will also afford the notices of the subsequent 

67th Event. The population of all the 
Tainos in the Antilles was at least two 
millions; 1,200,000 in Hayti; 600,000 in 
Cuba; 100,000 in Boriquen; 60,000 in 
Jamaica ; 40,000 in the Yucayas ; besides 
the unknown Carib population. 

This is the least calculation, at the Spa 
nish arrival: others have swelled it to 6 
millions, including all the West Indies. 
Las-Casas states that the Lucayas had 
500,000, Jamaica and Boriquen 600,000. 

68th Event. The domestic animals of 
these islands, were among beasts, Alco 
dogs, gochi-dogs, agutis, cavias, pecari 
hogs and manatis : turtles and guanas 
among reptiles : parrots, doves, partridges, 
fowls, ducks and red cranes among birds : 
remoras among fishes ; and even cucuyos 
or fire flies used for lamps among insects. 

Such were found either in one or all 
the islands ; which were not therefore des 
titute of domestic animals, as commonly 
believed. Columbus found tame fowls at 
Cuba in 1492; which were probably the 
Powis fowls, 

69th Event. Beroica was king of Ja 
maica (about the year 1420) he began a 
dynasty ; his two successors were Bern- 


beroica and Abcm-beroica, meaning Be- 
roica II., Beroica III. 

Garcia states this fact ; but in 1503 
Columbus found Ameyro Cazic of the east, 
and Huarco of the west of Jamaica. 

70th Event. The island Puta or Cahiri 
now Trinidad at the furthest east end of 
the Antilles was still inhabited by several 
Aruac tribes, Cahiris, Yaoy &c. which 
resisted the inroads of their constant foes 
the Galibis and Caribas. 

71st Event. Between 1450 and 1480 
Guaramatex was the greatest king and 
Cazic of Hayti, in Bainoa and Maguana. 

7M Event. Cayacoa was king of Caizimu 
and Higuey in the east from about 1460 to 
1494 when he died. 

73d Event. About 1470 some Caribs 
settle in Samana, the east peninsula of 
Hayti ; and two valiant brothers Caonabo 
and Manicatex, form themselves a small 
kingdom inland near to the Mayoriex na 
tion, Mayo-banex their king admits them 
as allies. Caonabo conquers 3 provinces, 
Dahabon, Zibaho and Manababo. He was 
so much esteemed for his valor, that Ana- 
coana the Venus of Hayti, sister of the 
king of Xaragua, becomes his wife soon 
after. (20) 

74dh Event. About 1475, Behechio is 
kings of Guacarima in the west, till 1500. 
His capital was Xaragua. He became a 
conqueror of several provinces, as far as 
Neyba and Ozama rivers. He had 32 vas- 


sal Cazics, and 30 wives, his favorite queen 
was Guanahata. 

Dangleria calls him Beuchicus Anaca- 
choa, and says that as usual with great 
kings, he received many titles, being called 
Shining Copper, Bright Highness, and 
Rich Flood. These titles were really 

I uicigua Iwbitt Heaven-like ot Vt-llow Copper. 

Siarei-huibo Star-briulit Higlme>s. 

Jhtyh-ziuevufn Wealthy in Stteauus. 

75th Event. In 1480 Guarionex succeeds 
Guaramatex as the greatest king of Hayti. 

16th Event. In 1486 the Cubans send a 
colony to Florida, in search of a river and 
spring restoring to youth; they visit the 
Pola islands, now Martyrs or Florida keys, 
the Colas nation of South Florida, and 
settle the town of Abaiba near the cape of 
Florida. Herrera. (21) 

This proves a previous trade and know 
ledge of Florida. The Colas are perhaps 
descendants of the ancient Cara-CWs of 
Hayti: they dwelt in Florida till 1760, 
when they removed to Cuba. 

Hth Event* In 1490 and previous to it, 
war in Cuba between the kingdom of Cuba 
or Colba, and Cavilla king of the Cami 
nation, in the country of Bafan, whose 
capital was Fava. Columbus Narrative. 

Columbus heard of this war in 1492. 
The Cami are the same as the Cama- 
yegua, the foreign 

204 NOTES. 


1. The account of these strangers in 
Hayti is very slender and confused, some 
writers deem them the ancestors of all the 
Caribs; yet they acknowledge Caonabo 
as a late comer. Mayo-banex name of 
their last king means Maya-head in the 
Maya language. They must have been an 
ancient colony or remain of the Mayas, 
since they had already three dialects. All 
strangers were called Caribs at last by the 
Haytians, whence the blunder. 

2. Traces of 44 distinct nations or tribes 
are found in the ancient history of the 
Antilles, (see last note) which are the an 
cestors of all the American nations of east 
ern origin by the Atlantic ocean. 

3. These titles of the Supreme God might 
furnish many pages of compared analogies. 
Mamona is identic with the Mammon of 
Africa and Asia. Liella has analogies 
with all the EL or suns, gods and lords of 
the east. Atabcira is identic with Ata- 
byriiis the Jove of the Phrygians and 
Pelasgians : The meaning Unic-being has 

o O c5 

analogies in Ata-belra all over the world. 
At a is one or first in many languages. 
Compare Atmon of Egypt, Baracata or 
Paraxacta the nature or mother of Bra- 
ma of the Hindus. Mamona with Vima- 
na eternal god of the Jains, the Manilas 
of North America. Ate was god in Thra- 
cian, Ata in Brazil, Etna and Heyla in 

NOTES. 205 

Polynesia. The names of God in the 
Cantabrian and Oscan dialects is Ian, 
Ion, Jaana, Jain, Janieva, Janugoieva 
fyc. similar to Jemao, Jocana arid Hiauna 
of Hayti. 

4. Gua-ma-o-con was such-great-of- 
world, in the early monosyllabic language 
of the Antilles. Compare with Con-el, and 
the gods of the Atlantes, Guanches &c. 

5. Compare the following words for winds 
with Gua-banzex. 

Vayajam Sanscrit. 
Band old Arabic. 
Watem, Vato Zend. 
Bangin Bali. 
Bentus old Latin. 
Vent us Latin. 
Andas Etruscan. 
Abka Abask. 
Sabam Ceylon. 

6. It was Jala, Khaya, Cayo, Hay in 
the dialects and it is pure Greek and Egyp 
tian. Compare Aya, Ai, Eta, la, Gaya, 
in the Pelasgic dialects, since become Aya, 
Yaia, Gea in Greek. 

Kahi Egyptian. 
AkJic Zend. 
Kay Deri of Iran. 
Lja Sanscrit. 
Ca, Aion Phenician. 
Ay Lybian. 
Aya old Irish. 

Ayate, Gays Ausonian and Oscan. 
In America numerous analogies are tound, 

206 NOTES. 

Aya Betoy, A in Lule, Catun Tzuluki, 
Acuti Moxos &c. 

7. EL for son was primitive Haytian 
and synonymous with tribe, children, family, 
divine or son of God as in Asia. In the 
dialects Rabu, Rahen, Muru tyc. meant 
Son. Compare Hi trihe in Persian, Zitl 
man in Circassian, Leh Osset, Lez Lezghi. 
Lele in Pelasgian, UL in Turan, now Oglu 
in Turk Olgos Eolian, Vulgns Latin, 
Cliuli in Carthulan, Oleos, Laos in Greek, 
Eleuth in Mongol, Chula old Spanish, Ala 
Copt, Bail Etruscan, Cobayl Berber, Haial 
in D. Shiluh, JJlu Afgan, Eli Hungarian, 
Filius and fam-ilia Latin &c. Even our 
words Fellow, Child and Folks derive 
from this ancient source, the oriental EL, 
IL, OL. In America we find it in the 
OL-mecas, Chols &c. Olo in Vilela, 
Yoalc Abipon, ELES Mexican &c. 

8. The Cols are perhaps the Chols, Olme- 
cas, Colas of Florida, Collas of Peru &c. 
The Caras may be the ancient Caribs, or 
the Guaranis, the Caras of Peru, the Co 
ras of Mexico &c.; compare with the an 
cient Carians and many other primitive 

9. Although we do not meet in Hayti 
the Greek name of Atlantis, we have so 
many allusions to the devils Tar as, and 
Amazons Amayuna, that we can connect 
these traditions with the Greek accounts. 
The ancestors of the Haytians if Pela 
gians were foes and vassals of the Atlantes ; 
but allies of the Amazons. 

NOTES. 207 

10. Compare Cazic with the following 
names for king : 

Oriental Names. 
Ach Egypt and Etruscan. 
Vasll of Greeks. 
Kasek in Sitka. 
Cazi in Iran. 
Sheik in Arabic. 
Zic Iberians and Sicules. 
Acalic, Agazi Berber. 
Bazilik Pelagian. 
Cahin Lybian. 
Huzil Carian. 
Cay Zend. 
Iza Tigreh. 
Cazil Mindanao island. 
Cazls Socotora island. 
Izcan of Haikans. 
Izca, Kan of Turans. 
Casts of Syrians. 

American Names. 
Acachi of Totonacas. 
Wachil of Nachez. 
Zac of Muyzcas. 
Cathi of Pinindas. 
Ahatic of Huaztecas. 
Inca of Peruvians. 
Chiaca of Coras. 
Cuchi of Puncays. 
Kiuska of Tzulukis. 

11. Compare Ziba with the following 
names for stone : 

Hiban in Berber. 
Uben in Hebrew. 

208 NOTES. 

Aben in Syriac. 

Keibe Celtic. 

Siwa Nukahiva island. 

Ripa, Rupes in Latin. 

tSitaba Pelasgian. 

Bahiba old Arabic. 

Iba Samoyed. 

Batu Malay. 
It is in America, Siba in Cahiri, Tabu 
in Yaoy ; Saba, Tebu, Tobu in Galibi dia 
lects, Ttishub in Huasteca, Tepe in Mexi 
can, Tzacapu in Talasca &c. 

12. Although Matinino was one of the 
names of Martinico, it may have been given 
afterwards, and there may have been an 
other land of that name, perhaps the Atlantis 
or Trinidad. 

Garcia gives Matalino as a synonym, 
Ma means great, and thus it would by the 
great TALINO, the real great Atalantis. 
The conjecture is plausible ; but the name 
was afterwards transferred to South, Ame 
rica. If the real African Atlantis is meant, 
the event must be before the last flood. 

13. This metal Guanin is the Orichalc 
of the ancient Greeks ; which has so much 
puzzled the learned, being wrongly deemed 
Platina, which would have been infusible. 
It was the production of Atlantis ! 

14. But Garcia gives a different version 
of this fable, he sa)s that the men being in 
want of women sent 4 Caracols (their vas 
sals?) to catch wives, who were like ants 
on trees ; but slippery like eels : yet some 

NOTES. 209 

being caught became the wives of the 
Guaninis. Ants were called Comekhon 
in Haytian, and thus we have another tribe 
akin to the Comaguas, Camay aguas tyc. 
who were previous settlers of Hayti, and 
descendants of Kon! the Klions of Lybia? 
But it is strange that we find here the 
Myrmidons of Grecian fable ! and many 
affinities in the name of that tribe of ants. 
Mur-mekon in Pelagian and Greek, Ume- 
Jean in Thracian,jFor/mca in Latin, Camot 
in Bali, Mohur in Iran &c., while in Ame 
rica Co in a gen of Uraba, Camaxen of the 
Talascas and Opatas. All referring per 
haps to the ancient people of Ants; the 
Pismires of Gothic tribes; a people of 
dwarfs or weakness, akin to Pygmies and 
Troglodytes ! thus traced also to America. 
15. Compare with Anaboria or Nabor- 
itas (working men) the following names 
lor vassals and laborers Ndboriti in 
Coyba, Labuyu of Caribs, Anaconas of 
Peru and Muyzcas, Naboria of Mayas 
and in the east. 

Tabara in Turan. 

Burutis in Ausonian. 

Aboricin, Abeirgon Pelagic. 

Boor, Bura Frisic. > 

Ambactos in Gaul. 

Manahunis in Tahiti. 

Nerba Hindostani. 

Bendar Pehlvi. 

Abondas Saxon. 

Canabas, Knave Gothic. 

210 NOTES. 

Nebara Nepal. 
P arias India. 

16. It is remarkable that the primitive 
notions of the Haytians about ghosts <fcc. 
prevail yet among the Negroes of the An 
tilles. The Obiah or sortilege, and Biqrin 
ghosts, of Jamaica &,c., appear to have 
survived. If introduced lately by the Afri 
can Negroes ; it is strange they should be 
similar to the Haytiari names of old. 

17. The two brothers became gods of 
good and evil, as their names indicate 
Gua-tauva implies suck goodness : while 
Pregonero is the devil of Cumana, under 
the names of Proruru or Progurp. 

18. These priests drest in white as in 
Central America, and the Druids; are 
primitive Lybian or Druidic priests and 

, Pelagic Bramins. Their name is found in 

Hubantes in Pelagic. 

Faybo of the Guanches. 
> Vatcs Ausonian and Gaul. 

Aobu in Aramic. 

Behotus Dorian. 

Bedo old French. 

Phonto in Egypt. 

Purohito in Sanscrit. 

Sudan in Pelvi. 

Budha of Budhists. 

Baharas Nepal. 

Heotes Sicanian &c. 

19. The Caribs went nearly naked ; when 
the Spaniards came with clothes and guns 
the prophecy was explained. Cochio for 

NOTES. 211 

dress and mantle has affinities with many 
ancient languages, Gonachen in Iran, 
Ahico of Guanches, Poncho of Peru and 
Chili, Cachaca of Gauls, Cochaya of Sla 
vonians, Cota in Celtic &c.: whence our 

20. This is the most plausible account 
of Caonabo ; but he perhaps was a Maya 
and not a Carib : his name is no\ Carib, 
but Haytian, meaning gold of the house. 
Anacaona would hardly have married a 
Carib? I have attempted to put probable 
dates to these retrospective events, loosely 
mentioned by Dangleria and the Spanish 

21. The intercourse between Cuba, Flo 
rida and the Lucayas was frequent. Dan 
gleria says the Lucayas were a happy 
people, with beautiful women, for whose 
sake many Cubans and Floridans came to 
live there. 

22. It will be proper to recapitulate here 
the ancient nations and tribes of the An 
tilles, mentioned in these traditions and 
annals; adding to each some well-known 
modern nations of the continent, bearing 
nearly the same name, and most probably 
descended from them : unless it is preferred 
to consider them as ancestors rather than 
posterity, a very improbable fact. Mean 
time we acquire thereby a new clue to 
American annals and ethnology: since 
nearly all the nations of America may be 
connected with those by other links of 
languages, traditions &c. 

212 NOTES. 

1. Zemisor Chemes, Compare Zemis and 
Zemayos of Chaco and Chimus of Peru. 

2. Tuyras or Taras, Compare Tarascas 
and Tarahumara of Mexico, Taricas and 
Talas of Tucuman, Atures of Oronoc &c. 

3. GuabanZ) Compare Abays and Abi- 
pons of Chaco? 

4. Khayas, Compare Cayubas and Khak- 
has of Peru. 

5. Higueras or Hibueras, Compare Gu- 
aranis, they called man Ibl, the Borias &c. 

6. Boinis, Bohanes of Charcas, and 
names of priests in South America. 

7. Marohus or Mar ocas, Muras of Bra 
zil, Aymaras of Peru, Maronios of Charcas. 

8. Corocores, Coretus of Brazil, Coras 
of Peru, Coros of Cumana, Coras of Mexico. 

9. Coles, probably same as Cores, Colas 
of Florida, Collas of Peru, Chols of Central 
America, Cholas of South America. 

10. Caracara again same, Caras, Caris, 
Carios of Guaranis and Peru, perhaps also 
Caribs ? 

11. Manicos or Manacos, the great 
Nacos J^Ianicas or Manoas, Maynas of 
Peru, Nacos of Comayagua. 

12. Icotas or Hicotcas, Cotos Carib 

13. Cnutas appear same as I-cota / 
and Hi arc articles, Cotos and Cotas tribes 
of Cumana and Oronoc. 

14. Caanau or Caonas, Cagnas, Canaris 
of Peru. 

15. Glagau or Xaguas, Changas of Peru, 
Achaguas of Guyana. 

NOTES. 213 

16. Amayunas, Mayoriexes of Hayti, 
Mayas of Yucatan, Mbayas of Chaco. 

17. Machocha, Machicuis of Charcas, 
Chunchos of Peru. 

18. Zibas, Zipas of Muyzcas, Shibaois 
of Guyana. 

19. Khoboses, Coropos of Brazil, Coybas 
of Darien, Mocobis of Chaco. 

20. Gionas or Annas, Yana-conas of 

21. Kadrus, Aruacs of Guyana. 

22. Giahubas, Yaoys, Shiahubas and 
Yahus of Guyana. 

23. GuaniniS) Guanas all over South 

24. Tonas, Atun-collas of Peru, Tuncas 
of Popayan, Tun of Chili. 

25. Anacac or Manati, Tamanacus of 

26. Boras, Anaborias of S. America. 
Boroas of Chili. 

27. Comos, Comis or Come-Khon, Co- 
mayaguas of Honduras, Comagr e of Darien, 
Aculma of Mexico. 

28. Goeiz, Goyaz of Brazil, Guyanas of 

29. Aumatex, Yumas, Yameos of Peru, 
Amatalas of Moxos. 

30. Guatauvas, Guatayos or Aruac 

31. Moretes, Muretes of Moxos ? Muras 
of Brazil. 

32. Caribas, Canibas, Canimas, The 
Calibis or Caribs. 

214 NOTES. 

33. Timanis, Timanas of Chaco, Ta- 
manacs and Tarrccas of Oronoc. 

34. Labouyous, Abuyas and Abayes 
synonym of M bay as. 

35. Cahiris Caris of South America. 

36. Eyeris, Yaros of Parana. 

37. Toas, Taos of Tucuman, and of New 

38. Oumekwas, Omaguas, Humayons of 
Chaco &c. 

39. Mabuyas, Abuyas, Poyas, Poyay of 
North and South America. 

40. Cofachis. Cofachis or Cowetas of 
North America ? 

41. ApalachiS) Apalaches, Yamasis of 
North America. 

42. Mayoriex or Ziguayos, Mayas, 
Guayos of Chaco. 

43. Cons, Chons and Yana-Conas of 
Peru, Conos of Chaco, Comvos and Cona- 
mas of South America. 

44. jSls or Mi (children), Eles and Ols 
of Mexico, Yoales or Vilelas and Lules or 
Pele of Chaco. 

Thus, how gratuitous was the common 
opinion that only one nation filled the An 
tilles. Meantime we find nowhere in these 
annals that name of Antilia, which in their 
language would have been Anti-ill sons of 
Antes, or Ana-ti-ili flower-high-children. 
It may be a Lybian name like Atlantes, both 
referring to the Antis or Anteus, the early 
inhabitants of North Africa, and of Peru. 



tored, with fragments of the dialects of 
Cuba, Jamaica, Lucaijas, Boriquen, 
Eyeri, Cain, Araguas. Grammar, 
roots, and comparative Vocabularies. 

At an early period I endeavored to col 
lect all the scattered fragments of this lan 
guage, in order to elucidate and support 
the historical traditions. This labour con 
cluded in 1828, has given very important 
results, whi h shall now be explained. At 
the time of the Spanish discovery and con 
quest, many Spaniards spoke that language; 
many slaves were sent to Spain ; but phi 
lology was not then attended to. Therefore 
we have no dictionary nor grammar of this 
language. Meantime the very nation has 
disappeared, destroyed by Spanish cruelty. 

However, nearly all the early travellers 
and writers on the West Indies have pre 
served by chance, some words of it. Co 
lumbus himself mentions some of them in 
his original journal. Roman and Dangleria 
explain many of the quoted words. Others 
are scattered in Acosta, Gomara, Oviedo, 
Garcia, Diaz, Las-Casas &c.; which had 
never been all collected even by Vater nor 
Edwards. Gili alone undertook to give a 
long list of Hay tian words ; but three-fourths 


of them are geographical or historical names 
unexplained and unavailable. 

I have used, compared and brought to 
gether all these loose materials, and thus 
succeeded in restoring about 231 words of 
this language, a list ample enough for all 
historical purposes. This contains besides 
50 words of the Eyeri and eastern dialects, 
with 38 of the Cuban or western dialects, 
useful to show the variations of dialects. 
We know that from Bahama to Cuba, 
Boriquen to Jamaica, a same language 
was spoken in various slight dialects, but 
understood by all: Columbus himself says so. 

But this language, which had also partly 
spread in Florida, and in South America, 
has the appearance of being a mixt speech. 
This appears from the many synonyms, the 
deviations of dialects, and the double forms, 
or relative position of words. In the small 
eastern islands the Eyeris or Cab res had 
been destroyed by theCaribs,who preserved 
the women, and these preserved their own 
language, mixt with some Carib words and 
taught it to their daughters ; so as to pro 
duce a double language, that of the women 
being quite peculiar. This singular fact 
well authenticated, will enable us to presume 
a similar conquest and custom, wherever 
we shall meet in America, with a peculiar 
female idiom. 

The many nations or tribes mentioned 
in the traditions, which had gradually amal 
gamated ; and the settlement in Cuba and 


Hayti of the Mayas, will account for this 
mixture of synonyms. But the existence 
also of many homonyms, lead us to a former 
more simple speech, probably monosyllabic 
and quite regular as the oriental idioms, to 
which it is most akin. 

From the primitive languages of North 
Africa and South Europe, it had received 
this regular position of ideas ; but by the 
mixture with the Maya aud Mexican na 
tions using the inverse form, it borrowed 
that new form. The same happened in 
Europe to the Celtic and Oriental tribes, 
who received in Greece and Italy the in 
verse form of speech from the Scythian, 
Illyrian and Gothic tribes. 

The comparative examination of the 
Haytian and dialects, was pursued by me, 
upon all the languages of the earth, as I 
was determined that one American nation 
at least, should be traced philologically to 
its real origin. Thus I found many thou 
sand analogies of it, out of which I have 
used about 1500 in the annals, notes and 
vocabularies. A single American language 
does then contain more comparative analo 
gies in about 200 words than all those col 
lected by Vater and Malte, out of 400 
American languages ; and this fact upsets 
all the illusions, theories and false views, 
based thereon by them, Humboldt and 

But this comprehensive labour teaches 


other facts, by far more important am 
available. 1. That American language; 
have analogies with all the languages o. 
the earth, 2. That they have similar analo 
gies with each other, 3. That it is only th( 
superior number of analogies that may in 
dicate a filial or parental connection ou 
of America, 4. And that also similar great 
est number of analogies, indicate the pa 
rental relations of American languages anc 
nations between themselves, 5. Lastly that 
unless a language and nation is compared 
with all the others, we can never ascertair 
accurately, nor trace its real parentage 

This consequence is obvious, although it 
will not please the lazy or timid philologists 
and historians. It shall be further pursued 
and elucidated hereafter ; but now 7 let us 
apply these rules to the Haytian. 

I could give 400 comparisons. Let us 
select a few. 

2. Ainu of Clioka islands between Japan 
and Kamchatka, 22 comparable words 4 
alike in Haytian Boat, house, no, drink 
Mutual affinity only 21 per cent. No pa 

2. Singala of Ceylon, 50 comparable 
words, 16 analogies, with Haytian Mutual 
affinity 32 per cent. Very distant parentage. 

3. Guanch of the Canary island nearest 
to Hayti in the east, 32 comparable words, 
14 akin. Mutual affinity 42 per cent. 
Distant connection. 


4. Mandara. Handsome black nation 
in the centre of Africa, 12 words compar 
able, 6 akin, one, water, man, kin-, mo 
ther, river Mutual analogies 50 per cent. 
Nearer connection than with the Guanch, 
or separation less remote. 

5. Pelagic* or ancestors of the Greeks 


and Italians. Comparable words in all the 
ancient and modern dialects nearly 200, 
whereof about 100 offer more or less analo 
gies ! Mutual affinity 80 per cent ! Com 
plete and near connection. 

Therefore the Haytians are of Pelagic 
origin ! No other group of languages offer 
anything like as many. The nearest afterj 
are the Atlantic L. Lybian, Egyptian, Bask, 
Sanscrit, Persian &c. who are all connected 
with the Pelagic nations. The analogies 
with the Tartars, Chinese, Polynesians &c., 
are all less in amount. 

In America the Haytian affinities are of 
course the greatest with the Aruac nations 
of South America ; who are their brothers, 
and extend to the Taos of Tucuman and 
the Tinguis or true Patagons of Pigafetta. 
Yet they may have been divided long ago, 
or ever since their American settlement : 
since out of two selected for comparisons, 
after the vocabularies, the Araguas had 
only 70 per cent of analogy, and the Cairi 
only 56 per cent. The nearest affinities 
after these, were with the Apalachis, Na- 
chez, Cadoz, Huastecas, Mexican, Ta- 
rasca, Maya, Chontal fyc of N. America, 


and the Darien, Betoy, Peruvian, Chili, 
Mbaya fyc. of South America. 

Those with the nations of N. America of 
Asiatic origin, and the nations of South 
America of African origin, such as the 
Linapis and Guaranis, were much reduced. 
See the compared vocabularies. 

The Haytian shall now become therefore 
one of the touchstones of other American 
languages, to verify their eastern or At 
lantic origin, and above all the connection 
with the American Pelagians. 

Let us now consider the forms and pe 
culiarities of this interesting language, and 
first its phonology. 

It appears to have all the sounds of the 
Italic languages; but it lacks the Greek 
TH, PS, the Cairi had TH. It has been 
written by Spaniards, and their simple or 
thography applies well to it ; but leaves a 
doubt whether it had the Celtic and French 
u (unless it be y) Hebrew and English SH, 
lacking in Spanish. Their CH is as in 
English, and the French TCH. It had 
the gutural X of the Greeks and Spanish, 
written X and J. Also the Spanish LL, 
GN or N, and TZ. 

It had few P being changed to B ; few 
F often changed to V ; few L changing to 
Y ; few S changed to Z ; few D changed 
to T. It had no nasal sounds as in Italian, 
AN becoming Ana <fyc. Many dipthongs 
AC, OEI, IA, AI, UA, AU, El &e. as in 
Italian, each vowel sounded. This made 


the language soft, pleasing and musical as 
in Italian and Polynesian. Dangleria says 
the accent was always on the last syllable, 
as in French. 

On the grammar of it, nothing has been 
written ; what Vater has said is quite loose 
and inacurate. We have not even the 
Lord s Prayer in it, so as to serve as a 
model. Our only guides are a few trans 
lated phrases of Roman and Dangleria; 
but they enable us to perceive the main 
features of it. 

One of the chief was the great use of 
articles, as in Italian ; but with a peculiar 
one GUA, put commonly before, but some 
times after the nouns. It was a demon 
strative article, meaning such, or this, that, 
these, those ; but never changing and com 
mon as our The : while this indicative The 
was declinable or changing as in the Italic 
languages, and extremely various, although 
always prefixed, expressed by I, HI, HIN, 
NI, N , ZI, LI &,c. A third kind of arti 
cle was O, which when added, appears to 
have been comparative, and to mean Akin, 
Like, Similar, or our English AS. The 
relative article Of was A prefixed. 
Examples of Articles. 

Gua-yava This pear. 

Gua-ma This great, or lord. 

Gua-tiaos Those brothers, 

Ma-za-gua Great plain such. 

Bala-gua Sea such, the ocean. 

I- Guana The guana or lizard. 


Ni-taino The good or noble. 

Mi taino My noble lord. 

Li-ani The wife. Eyeri dialect. 

Hin-Guaili The such-sons, the children, 

Ziba o Stone like, stony. 

A-na Of bloom, a flower. 

A-boria Of labor, a vassal. 

A-maca Of wood, a bed. 

A-ma Of great, water. 

A-reiti Of rite, song. 

These articles formed probably the de 
clinations of nouns, as we do not perceive 
a different desinense. This form was more 
like the Celtic, Oscan, and Greek, than the 

The feminine was formed nearly as in 
Italian, O changing to A. Taino, Taina, 
Lord, Lady Hito, Hita, Man, Woman; 
but there must have been irregularities 
difficult to trace : as some words masculine 
end in I, S, N, U, L, Perhaps some where 

Some words are formed by duplication, 
implying an amplitude, as in the Oriental 
language. Bi life, Bibi mother and wife 
in dialects. Ba habitation, Baba, Vava 
Father. Ma great, Mama mother. Xau 
cake, Xauxau bread or large cake. 

The plurals are chiefly in I as in Italian, 
or in S as in Spanish ; but there are some 
irregular plurals. Taino, Taini, Lord, 
Lords. Hito, hitos man, men. 

EL son. ILI sons. Zend angel, Zetnes 


The Eyeri dialect forms many plurals in 
UM. Eyeri man, Eyerium men ; Inara 
woman, Inayum women. 

The adjectives are put before cr after 

the substantives, blending the two forms ; 

and the prevailing form in compound words 

is doubtful, perhaps the regular as in Latin. 

Examples of regular position. 

Hay-ti Land-high. 

Ana-caona Flower (of) gol.l. 

Buhui-tihu Priest high or eminent. 
Examples of inverse positions. 

Bo-hito Old man or priest. 

Jaya-cl Earth -son. 

N abor-itas The working men. 

The adjectives are chiefly formed from 
nouns, and often by a simple O added, thus 
Ziba stone, Zibao stony, Zibayo mount. 

Tarei heaven, Tareigua heavenly or 

Duhos wealth. Duilizi wealthy or 

The superlatives are commonly formed 
by duplication. Ua old, Uaua very old. 
Co fruitful, Coco very fruitful, the coco 

Or else by the affix Ma which amplifies 
every thing. 

The pronouns appear very simple. 

MI, M first person for I, me, my, mine ; 
but our is Ahia 1 

TI. T Second person for thee, thou, thy, 


LI, L Third person for he, she, his, her. 

NI, N Common like It or rather On of 
the French. 

How their plurals are formed, is doubtful ; 
but perhaps the inflexions alone formed 
them. These pronouns are pure Italian ! 
or rather primitive. They were often dis 
pensed with as in Italian. 

Of the verbs we know little or nothing. 
By a few examples of the verb to be, it was 
quite irregular as with us. 

EX To be Tei be thou Bei being. 

Beira a being Dacha I am. 

El he is Zi it is, this is. 

In these Ei appears the root, derives 
from Eil, and was then similar to El son, 
as Zi to Izi eyes. 

This verb joined to others was added to 
words. Guarocoel we know he is, may be 
analyzed Gua-roco-el such-know-he-is. 

We have an example of negative verbs 
in Macabuca I do not care, which is Maca- 
buca not-care, or never-mirid ; in French 
tfimporte, in Italian non euro. 

Of the syntax we may form an idea by 
the few preserved phrases ; which I have 
analyzed as follow, and compared with the 
! Teitoca thou be quiet. Tacitu Italian. 

tocheta much, molto. 

zinato angly. irato. 

Guame-chyna this great God. gran- 



Gua-ibba that go. Vai It. 

2. <[ zinato angry, irato. 

macabuca not care, non euro. 
Dios Spanish God. Dio It. 

3. ^ Aboria Servant. Servo. 

dacha I am. Sono. 
his idiom or position of words is perfect 
in Italian which admits of many transposi 
tions; but in English syntax and idiom 
these phrases mean 

1. Be quiet, God will be very angry. 

2. Begone, I do not care if he is angry. 

3. I am the servant of the Spanish God. 
The Haytian numbers have not been 

transmitted to us, and I could only collect 
the following secondary numbers Ata 
first, Bern second, Abem third : which 
however are primitive and indicate a bi 
nary numeration : although the language 
had probably the decimals. 

By a careful analytical process I have 
been able to decompose the compound 
words, and even reach their monosylabic 
roots. All the long words can be thus 
analyzed, and show that this compound 
form only arises, as usual in American 
languages, by the blunders of the Spanish 
writers, who WTote long words instead of 
short ones; blending articles and affixes. 
The Haytian thus analyzed and reduced 
is a very simple language, approximating 
to the primitive and oriental forms, wherein 
short monosyllables of generic import, 


formed the base of the speech, and became 
modified by union and relative position. 

By these means the following essential 
roots of the language have been collected, 
and are given to help future similar inves 
tigations of American languages. 
Examples of composition. 

Cazabi Bread. Ca-za-bi soil-fruitful-life. 

Manali Sea cow. Ma-na-tl great-thing- 

Turei Heaven. Thir-ei Thou-light-be. 

Furzidi Cloudy, fur-zi-di gloom-it-is- 
day. (or now) 

Areiti Song, rites. A-rei-ti of reality 

Naniclii Soul. Na-ni-chi thing the active. 

Maroyo Moon. M#-ro-yo great lovely. 

74 essential monosyllabic roots of this 
language or genera of ideas. 

A, Of, as, like. 

Ac, Holy, sacred, religious. 

AM, Water, root, plenty. 

AN, Male thing, man, people, folk. 

AT, One, alone, first, unic. 

BA, Father, ancestor, dwelling. 

BAL, Raft, floating, wave, sea. 

BAN, Wind, air. 

BAO, Music, lyre, instrument. 

BAT, Beating, game, play, ball. 

BEM, Second, double, twin, two, next. 

Bi, Life, wife, mother. 

BOA, Habitation, house. 

BOR, Labor, work, vassal, service. 


CA, Land, soil, earth, dry. 

CAN, Fish, swift, bad. 

CHI, Active, soul, work, wine, lively. 

CIION, Hot, dry, fever. 

CHUC, Take, grasp, hold. 

Co, Soil, fruitful, fountain, dog, thread. 

COAT, Joy, delight, happiness. 

Cu, Chapel, altar, hearth, fire, all. 

Cus, Worm, creeping. 

Di, Day, now, actual. 

DUH, Wealth, riches, treasures, property. 

Ei, Existence, to be. 

EL, Son, tribe, child, he is. 

FUR, Gloom, dark, cloud, fury. 

GIA, Fowl, bird, flying. 

GUA, Such, this, that, these, those. 

GUEY, Shell, hollow, closed. 

HA, Yes, sure, certain. 

Hi, The, indication, here. 

Hio, House, hut, cottage. 

HUIB, Head. 

I, The, sign of life and action. 

IO, God, the living-type. 

IT, Man, male. 

IN, Woman, female. 

IZ, Eyes, looks. 

L ,LI, He, she, they, his &c., oft. changed 

MA, Great, big, larger, increase, mothers, 
water &c. 

MAS, Food, to eat &c. 
MI,M , Me, my, mine. 
NA, Thing, bloom, lizard. 
Ni,N , The thing, my thing. 


No, NOA, Boat, navigation, noble. 

O, Like, similar, akin. 

OB, Copper, yellow. 

OP, Dead. 

Pu, Wood, purple. 

RA, REI, Real, rite, evidence, offspring. 

Ris, Red. 

Ro, Love, belove. 

Ri, Male, people, men. 

SOR, West, Eve, late, far. 

TOA, Breast, milk. 

Ti, High, lofty, eminent. 

TAB, Tube, pipe. 

TAI, TIAO, Brother, friend, good. 

Toe, Rest, peace, quiet. 

UA, Old, ancient. 

UR, Light. 

UT, Rabbits. 

VA, Cave, hollow, father, origin. 

VAR, War, warrior. 

XAU, Cake, baked, bread. 

Xi, Strong, pungent, pepper. 

YAR, End, tail, vent. 

Yu, White, bright. 

ZA, Grass, fruitful, plenty. 

ZEM, Angels, deities, idols. 

ZIB, Stone, rock. 

Zic, King, ruler. 

Such was the Haytian language, once 
spoken by several millions, and a western 
branch of the Pelagic stock ; that derived 
from the Asiatic Pelegs and Palis, once 
peopled nearly all the shores of the Medi- 
teranean 3 or 4000 years ago. 


The following comparative vocabularies 
will prove this fact. They have not been 
made to support it ; but to find the truth, 
arid the probable ancestors of this Ame 
rican nation, by seeking them all over the 
earth. If this nation one of the nearest to 
the eastern hemisphere, is thus found of 
such remote antiquity, those further re 
moved and inland may well be deemed 
equally old, or rather older still : which 
their own history shall disclose. 

Out of the 234 words collected ; many 
it will be perceived, are hardly comparable; 
being names of peculiar animals and plants. 
About 200 offer comparisons with our lan 
guages well known. It must be remarked 
that the Spaniards borrowed many Haytian 
words, which have since been introduced 
into Spanish and other European languages. 
Humboldt has given a list of them. Those 
admitted in the English language now are, 
hurricane, canoe, keys or islands, tobacco, 
pimento, yam, tomato, cassava, savana, 
mahogany, patatas, mangrove, indigo, co 
pal, maize, bananas, parrot, guano, coco, 
cacao, guava, hammock or hanging bed &c.; 
which must not be compared, since they 
have been borrowed by us from the Hay^ 
tian. The Spaniards have besides, chichas, 
balza, Cazic spelt cacique, aguti, manati, 
maguey, tiburo, guayac, macana, bejuco 3 
nigua, tuna, aji, zeyba,&c. 


Yet several of those words may be use 
fully compared in ancient languages often 
extinct, previous to the late connection 
with America. Thus we find analogies 
for maize, canoe, cazic, cayman, yam, 
chicha, macana, manati &c., in many : in 
dicating very ancient connections. Even 
the words manati, hurricane, canoe, nigua 
&,c, have affinities in modern Italic lan 
guages, not derived from Hayti. 

Comparative TAINO Vocabulary of 

Authorities, R. Roman C. Colum 
bus D. Dangleria, Ac. Acosta, Her. 
Herrera. M. Munoz, L. Las-Casas, 
O. Oviedo, G. Garcia or Gili, E. Ed-, 
wards, H. Humboldt, V. Vater, A. all 
or nearly all of them, Laet, Diaz, St. 
Mery, Ey. Eyeri Dialect. 

All or whole Quis R. D. Xus O. 

Analogies, Oya Congo, Jikoga Japan, Chu h oat Nepal, 
Huy Copt, Qualunque Italy. Ixquich Mexican, Kiyih 
Mohigan &c. 

Angel and Idol. ZEMI, Zcmes, Che- 
mes A. analogies in annals. 

Alligator or crocodile. CAYMAN A. 

Caram Hornu, Taymah Arabic, Cuina Bechuana, 
Caimio Chamoa Egyptian Dialects. Cayman Peru 
vian, Camac Mexican, ^mangam Lin a pi. 

Ants or pismires COMEXON R. see notes. 
Apple, pear, guava. GUAVA, Guaiva, 
Quay aba, Xagua A. 

Jpis, Pttar, old French, Apple English, vfywas, Carba 
Pelagic, Carpos Greek, Carpath Aramic, Ribi Egypt. 


Angry ZYNATO D. 

Irato Ital, Orgytheis Greek, Cato (bad) Ausonian, 
Yahat Malay, It a Tonga. 

Am, I am DACHA D. 

JVac/t Turan, Da (is) Bask, Davo Sanscrit. Naca 
Maipuri, Ehaca Tarasca. 

Arachis or ground-nut. MANX, Manis A. 
Nux Latin. 

Aloe MAGUEY. Magheih H. Agave 

Annona or Papaw GUANAVAN H. 

Ananas or pine-apple BONIAMA G. Fan- 
polomi E. 

Annato or red paint ACHIOTO H. Bixa G. 

Apart, aside, the side NARA R. Parte 
It., Share English &c. 

Armadillo ATATU E. 

Army GUARAVARA G., see War. 

Air, see Wind. 

Above UBEK in Eyeri, Super, Ubique, 

Breast and milk TOA R primitive word 
found in all languages, 
Teth Celtic, Tit J^axon, Tad Chaldaic, Toho Ainu, 
Aha (milk) Araiuic, ^AoGuanche, Tea Bisharis, Doa 
Hindu &c. 

Bread or cake CAZABI, Cazavi A. Cuac, 
Maru in dialects. 

Also primitive found in 100 languages. Oguia Bask, 
Jlhran Celtic and Berber, Shakua Abask, Kabaka 
ISuba, Khas Haikan, Maru Zingani, Yacu Dhagul 
mountains, Jlxans Pelagic, Artos Greek &c. Cuzavi 
Tayrones, Cosque Chili, Casaah Cado, Cancu Peru, 
Shokua Atakapas, Pasca Apalachi &c. 

Be, to be, TEI, Ei D. Primitive. 


Ei Aramic, E Italic, Hei Arabic, Eu Armoric, 
Hei Oscan, Esti Greek, E Haikan, Hein Pelagic, 
Eolian, Pet Egypt &c.Eini Tarasca, Atz Chay- 
nias &c. 

Being, and a being, BEI, BEIRA A. pri 
mitive, same roots, 

Boat, CANOA A. Pages. 

Primitive word of 100 languages, Nau Sanscrit, Pela 
gic, Osset, Nave, Barca Italic, Nans Greek, Guy on 
Guanch, Scafo, Cahekiu Sicilian, Xepec Lybian, Ba- 
colo lllyric, Cahani Ainu, Cayic Turk, Doa Arabic, 
Naos Haikan, Ani Aramic, Cana Bastul or Iberian, 
Naoi Celtic, Kan Teutonic &c. Noatek Mbaya, 
Cana/ma, Canabir Galibis, Palayak Aleutian, Banias 
Panama &c. 

Bird, fowl, BOGIAEL R. Ipis in Cuba. 

Compare Halit and Ibis Egypt, Pirid old Saxon, 
Ipira Hindu, Vogel German, Polio Oscan. Ugedu 
Sicily, Ogia Celtic, Uchel Ausonian, Bo Burman, 
Mapd Suanic, Haliga Pelagic &c. Gualpa Peru, 
Coxol Huasteca &c. 

Bed. AMACA A. Amazas L. Barbacoa 
H. Nehera, Nekera in Dialects. 

Ekia, Kunera, Greek, Tamapat Malay, Nedokuri 
Japan, Carna Lusitanian, Make Egypt Camata Peru, 
Amaca, Akat Galibi, Mucara Betoy ? Jlmaca Yaoy, 
Chinchero Guarauna. 

Blue and violet, TUNNA, Quibey, Guei, 
dialects. Cyanus Greek, Chuanta Abask. 
Beer, CHICHA A. 

Alicha, Ckeruisa Gauls, Chelia Cantabrians, Chacoli 
Bask, S/iuuku China, Ichna, Isua African Atlantes, 
Acka (VYine) Aramic C/iica Peru, C/iicha Chili, 
AJbayas, Cackina Apalachi, Huicu Galibis &c. 

Beloved, loved, Rozi, Berozi R. 

Eros Greek, Behar Persian, Careich Celtic, Cara 
Italic and Hebrew, Heri Sanscrit, Eiras, Meres Egypt, 
Amore Italian, Amuri Sicilian. 


Ball, ball-game, BATOS D. Batei G. 

Orpatos Greek, Ballota Italic, Baton French, Bandy, 
Bate old English Pali, Palican Chili. 

Beast, beastly, wild, Caracol R. 

Caracal Lybian, Car Turan, Heraca, Ferua Italy, 
Caracol Berber Atlantes, Caracoler old French, Ho-lo 
old Chirfese, Olo-olo Bugis and Macasar. 

Basket, HAVA G. Primitive, see Cave. 

Bright, TUREIGNA D. see Light. 

Bananas, BANANAS Her. Camois G. 

Bad fellow, VAQUIANO Ac. Paquiano 

Brother, GUATIAO Her. Tayo Polyne 
sia, Fratielo Ital. D. 

Blood, MOINALU Ey. 

Omoina Aramic, Idoimen African Atlantes, Odola 
Bask, Zemo Zend, Tola Arabic, Haimai Pelagic, 
Haematos Greek, Aimonos Romaic, Hamanos Illyric, 
Mulu Koriak and Kamchatka. 

Corn, maize, MAHIZ, MAYZ A. 

TKfajza Bask. Mas Nepal and Congo. May Kirata of 
Imalaya, Me Chinese, Maza Pelagic, Maiz Turan, 
Zimidi, Zhnind Caucasian languages, Mozcn Guanch, 
Tientsin, timezin tomzin African Atlantic Hazez 
Apalachi, Iziz Huasteca, Zara Peru, Yasit Cora, 
Umita Chili. 

Cold, YMIZUI R. Hima Sanscrit, Hiems 
Latin, Frimat French. 

Cave, cavern, COVA, Vava D. Giaga, 
Beina O. 

Caca, Cabina, Phinon Pelagic, Caura Lybian, Thebi 
old Egyptian, Tabaita Ausonian, Ketena, Phian Os- 
can and Etruscan? Libanah, Cuena Arainic, Tana 
Sicily, Deina Teuton. . . . Primitive. 

Cotton, MAPU E. ZEIBA A. Gosupon 
Greek^ Kapas, Kipi Sanscrit language, 


Bombaz Pelagic, Co sib old Arabic. 

Cloth, see dress. 

Club, see sword. 

Copper, TUOB C. Yellow copper, HOBIN 
D. Kuop Pelagic, Kupros Greek, Cu~ 
preus Latin. 

Careless, I don t care, MACABUCA D. 
Bucanaco Congo. 

Cutting, knife, HENEQUEN. Ecuta Bask, 
Totenika Greek, Sikunatant Pehlvi, Kan- 
giac Arabic &c. 

Children or tribe, EL, ILI, GUAILI R. 
Primitive, analogies already given in annals. 

Clusia alba, or copal tree, COPEI, Copal 

Conch-shell, Maguey C. as Aloe. 

Cake, XAUXAU G. Akes C. see Bread. 
Xau is primitive. 

Cocos, Coco G. Coquillas in Boriquen. 

Cedar, CAUVANA G. 

Cacao, CACAO A. same in Mexico &c. 

Church, temple, chapel, Cu Acosta, Tzia. 
Primitive, same name in Maya, Chontal, 
Mexican &c. Gru Japan, Tia Chinese D. 

Cloudy, FURZIDI, Her. 

Cane, YARUMA, Her. 

Crabs, Taracolas. Grankio Italian, 
Harkinos Greek. 

Dress, mantle, cloth, COCHIO D. R. Fa- 
guas Her. 

Akico Guanch, Haico Berber, Cachaca Gaul, Coehaya 
Slavonian Poncho Chili, Cuayt Galibi. 

Danse and song, rites and worship AREI- 


TOS A., Areites D., Areiti G., Batocos G. 

Iroitos sacred songs of Greeks, Ticos Illyrian, Ar- 
tesis, Orchcsis, Xoreite, danses of Pelagians and 
Greeks, Jlriette (son"-) French and Ital., hurah Sax 
on, Akura Havay Yaravis Peru, Mitotvs Mexican. 

Dog, Cuchis, Gochis, Alco (a peculiar 

Kkoy Caucasus, Cunis Pelagic, Kiuen China, Chin 
Mungur of Nepal, Cfiien French, Cucus Persian, Cu- 
cura Sanscrit, Cucha Newar, Cuxur Nepal, Cinicha 
Guanch Atlantes Cuch Curdish, Cho Siam Chichi, 
dlco Mexican, Chegua Chili, Cule Lule, Allco Peru, 
Vichu Tarasca. 

Day, Di Primitive Dies Latin and all 
Pelagic languages. 

Daughter, RAHEN Ey. 

Chera Copt, Jlhtt, Raena Sanscrit, Nuora Italic 
Ninah Darien, Tahira Omagua. 

Dead, ghost, spirit,OriA, Opoyem, Goeiz. 

Boa old Ethiopic, Apw&ya Pelagic, lya Bi&liri, 
Obit Latin, Leoba Irish, Zabi Bask, Obiah, Oabye, 
Africans Pitini, Conopas Peru, Ho, Obild Othomi, 
Maboya Galibi, Chipi Ottawa. 

Devil and Evil, TUYRA D., see Annals. 
Mabuya Eyeri is Carib. 

Eternal, MAMONA R. Jemao, title of God, 
see Annals. 

Earth, land, and island, JAYA, Khaya, 
Cayos, Hay, Guaca fyc. A Primitive, 
see Annals. 

Eat, to eat, food, to feed, IMAS, MAni A. 

Mets Celtic, Yam Slavic, Jian Bask, lahamas Kam 
chatka, Macanu Malay, Uem Copt, Mas Sanscrit and 
Thibet, Mashu Nepal Micuni Peruvian. 

End, tail, YARIMA D. 

Ura$ Greek, Ora Anglo-Saxou, Gomcra A ramie, 


Oari Japan, Ura Manchu, Brim Teutonic Yara 

Emerald, gem, and money, AGUACAT, O. 
Achates Greek, Agata Latin &c. 

Eyes, Izi, O. Primitive, Mizi in Poly 
nesia, Opsis Greek, Aiz English, Iz Orien 
tal language Cost Cahiri. 

Field, plain, CONUCO G. V. ZAVANA Za- 
naga, Mazagua, A. 

Khana Pehlvi, Bashan old Arabic, Chonu Yakut, 
Azagar, Zahal, Caha, Amaza, African Atlantes, Coy 
Copt, Age,r Latin, Kuni, Nabeku Iberian Spanish 
Cog Guarani, Cu Omaguas, Tzallan Huasteca. 

Fly, flying-insect, COCUYO, Cuinix, Zie- 
vas. Huica Pelagic, Cuic Sanscrit, Mus- 
ca Latin. 

Fountain, COA, Maca, Mini. Cum 
Hindi, Ain Arabic, Hecoas Pelagic. 

Frog, TOA G. Onomatopeia. 

Father, AHIA, Baia^ R., Vava, Baba Ey. 
Primitive, found in 500 languages. 

Bap Lybian, Ii>as />&# of atlantes, Jib Oriental Lang, 
P Thibet, Yaija Kawi, BaboAvo Italy, Ayenl French, 
Jiij Votiac and Edda, Oaba Abase, Aita Bask ; Ba 
Ab Baba, Sanscrit; Bay Jolof. Yaya Peru, lyay 
r J"aos, Haia Sheba, Ochai Yaqui, \apa Cora, Lahai 
Cochimi and Lamones, Ahay Eslen, Aoy Eclemac, 
Jlya Yarura, FiZamnca, Alien Yaraeos, Yare Puri, 
Baba Saliva, Papa Tamanac and Cuna, etc. 

Frolic, Intoxication. Barbasco St. 
Mary, Frasco Sicilian. 

Fish, ICAN, Guaycan M. 

Than Malay, Icthos Greek, Guiena lolof, Nga, Gna 
Limbua and Newar of Nepal, Piscan (3scan, lea Ton 
ga and Nukahiva, Sakana Japan, Iguah Java, I a- 
eun Wokon, Hucat Cora, Mahach Nachez. 

Fire, CUYO D, Cuxo H. 


Ecu Hottentot, Cuat, Taquat afr Atlantes, (7?/i/Kawi, 
Koke Coptic, Ogiak Tmk, Cuasi Japan, Fvyo Iberian, 
Fuoco Italy, Ucut Moluccas. Totecuh Muscolgi, Cu 
Sussih, /CM Lule, Eguza Saliva, Yucu, Xucu Moxas, 
Cutha, Chili, Cay ah Malali, Cuati Sapibo, Kueh Ta- 

Fire-fly, CUCUYOS G. Cucuyo H. Locu- 
yos H. Cucuix D. Zievas in Lucayas O. 
see Fire and Fly. 

Foe, ANAKI O. Akani Ey. 

Katahi Japan, Neikos (strife) Greek, Uaina Slavic, 
Vahini Sanscrit, Katalki Kendy, Jinakim Araraic, 
Acanitu Sicilian, Nemico Italian. 

Flower, Blossom, ANA A. 

*Qnu, Matia, Eaypt, Jlnota Singala, JUnathos Greek, 
Suan Newar, Jiihina Palo, Tana Japan, Dam Otho- 

Fruit. INAS. GUAUANAS, Ac. Derived 
from Flower. 

Fruitful Co. Com Iberian, Comestible 

Fever, see heat. 

Flamingo, Red bird. IPIRIS Diaz in Cu 

God. JOVANA O. Yocalmna R. and 
many other names and titles in all the Is 
lands. See the annals and notes. All are 
compound primitive words: additional anal 

Jan Janus of Etruscans, Ju Ombrian, Yu Ausonian, 
Jovis Latin, Jona, Yauna, Juncva, Jaungoicva of 
Basks Jo-canna, Janum of Lybians, 1 BUJE of Mo 
ses, Joh Luchu, Yavang Sunda, lona Troy an, lunak 

Slavic, Jlchaman Ahican. Guanch, &c. Yah, yoha 

^aAChactah, Hioh New Albion, Ya/to Apalachi, Oy- 
vac Old Peruvian, Jahuagon Huron, Wakon Ozagea- 
Conomt Yaruras, Oho Aleutian, Ogha Othomi, &c. 


Great, Big,Large. MA, Magua, Guama, 
A. Primitive, akin to all old Languages, 

Magnus Latin, Megas Greek, Ma Oriental and San 
scrit Languages, Mam Pehlvi, Mese Zend, Maha 
Hindu and Bali, Mayue Jolof, Maiinu Fulah, Mah 
Iran, May Medic and Irish, Gvadul Phenician, Maigh 

Celtic, Magla Carthuli, Waka Japan. Ecvah Tzu- 

luki, GwaNachoz, Guazu Guarami, Zhuma Muyzcas, 
Ma Apalachi, Manaho Othomi. 

Green. HUARAHUA, Guaragua Laet. 

Xloris Greek, Viridis Latin, Huryo Nepal, Veragua 


Canchana Sanscrit, Sona Hindu, Kin China, Sanu 
Manding, Sun Nepal, Concha Peru. 

Go and Come. HA. Guaiba D. 

Odebo Greek, Jlmbular, Va, Vaya Italic D, Hanba 

Cosa afr, Ya, Gati Sanscrit, Hoye Tarahumara, 

Hupua Yaqui, ya Chactah, Bai Patagon, AuUa 

Gourd. HIGUERA. Hibuera D. O. Hibue 
ra M. 

Guara Bask, Cucurbit a Latin. 

Gentle, mild, tame. MATUM D. Bonia- 
tum O. 

Manso Italy, Matio (Foolish J Amato (beloved), Bo 
nus, mitis Latin, Gathos Greek. 

Guitar, Lyre. HABAO. R. 

Hiuhaba Bask, Cholao Hindi, Balajo Jolof, Oboe, 
Hinoa Italic D. 

Garden, Delight, Joy, Happiness. COAI 

Lall, Loula Egypt, Chagla Aramic, Shall Cashmir, 
ISkialar Sicily, Gala Italy, Yaul Scand, Hali Zend, 

Coya Pelagic, Aoa/i Arnioric, Quali Mexican, 

Haylli Peru, Ululaez Maya. 

Ghost, Spirit of Dead. GOEIZ. Opoyem 



Necvya Epirian, Goe Greek, Ghaib Aramic and Per 
sian, Goiti Slavic Goz Vilela, Coyocop .Xachez, 

jjguis Peru. 

Grand-father. AHIACAVO R. See Father. 
Narguti In Ejeri D. 

Guayac, Holy-wood. GUAYAC. Guaya- 
can H. Griiacum O. 

Grove, Forest. ARCABUTOS Ac. 

Good. TIAO R. Taino D, See noble. 

House, Habitation. BOA. BoJiio A. Bai 
R. Canei M. Tunohoko Eyeri D. Primi 

Ocos Pelagic, Hnstau TJomanic, Jicam Afr Atlantic, 
Uyon Uigur, Huis Old French, Khaneh Persian, Ka- 
naba Thibet, Oneh Old Egypt, Bantaba Fulah, Beit, 
baith Aramic, Bara Pelvi, Batos, Beotes Pelagic, 
Xna Dorian, Hu Chinese, Bohiga Celtic, Ca Etruscan, 
Abode, Booth English Bohio Apalachi, Buhio Maya, 
Ochoch Poconchi, fiothi, Baua Galibi, Pohos Tao, Ni- 
xai Quiche, Uya Lule, Bahi Aruac, Hitachi Peru, Oca 
Guarani, Uca Omagua, Ba Mizteca, Chaho Tarasca. 

Head, Summit, beginning, upon, peak. 
ZIMU D. Huibo. 

Cima, Suma Italic, Ima Sama Pelagic and Sanscrit, 
Imula Ombay Id, Kimila Yedzo, Kima Ligurian, 

Iman Arabic, Zimba Bunda Conjro, Yvma Japan 

Uma Peruvian, Chtme Quiche, China Poconchi, Umitz 
Nutka, Muhuti Cora, Yama Othomi. 

Heliconia. BIHAO. 

High, lofty, eminent, excellent, strong, 
raised. TIHU. Tichetu, Car, Huibo, Via 

Ti Pelagic, Tien Chinese, Tit has Greek, Auti, Alii 
Italic, L. Tith Lybian, Tip Saxon, Timal Oscan, 
Tohu Copt, Gibor Aramic, Bop Jolof, Obo Mogol, Ube 

Singala. Iba Apalachi, Uebo, Uipo Galibi, Hayo 



Heaven, sky. TUREI D. Siela O, Coai- 
ba R. Coyaba (Paradise.) Soraya (West 
sky.) Ubec Ey. 

Uranus, S/tia Greek, Tar an Old Persian, Irem Per 
sian, Aru Osset, Ciel French, Coelum Latin, Arai Ta 
hiti, Coelba Ausonian, Suraga Bug-is, Suroloyo Kawi, 
Surya Sanserif, Sora Japan, Uren Armoric Aral Tu- 

ran, Senia Bark, Uiain Pelagic, Hyalla Fullah. 

Capu Yaoy and Tamanac, Coane Maya, Cabu Oto- 
macas, Turd Paria, Hetucoba Apalachi, FaieGuara- 
ni, Purini Tarasca, Cabo G alibi, Tacab Poconchi, Pa 
cha Aymara. 

Heart and Soul. NANICHI 

Nasha Chaldic, Anima Latin, Han Chinese, Can 
Turk, Hvchi Deri Persian, Uhane Havay, Zinio Af- 
gan, Nima Pelagic, Aim Egypt, Jlnichal Celtic, 
Nehima Congo, Kaueshin Aleutian, /chick Huazteca 
Jlqna. Cumana, Cama Peru, Nashawanith Powhatan, 
Ninohuani Galibi, Nandi Ottomaca, Juani Y arura 
Amitani Maipuri, &c. 

Holy. Auc D. YAC G. GUACA R. 

Cadish A ramie, Jlucus Old Latin, Hagios Greek, Agi 
Tonga, Haga Pelagic, Ca Turan, Hancus Ausonian, 
Khuab Old Egypt Aca, huaca Peru, Wakon Da 
cota, Hitncait Cora, Hualic Huazteca. 

Heat, hot, fever, dry. ZECIION. Zezio- 
nes M. 

Ako Old Arabic, Siciis Latin, Xerone, Chaone Pela 
gian, Chon Egypt, Chaud (Cho) French, Can Roman 
ic, Add Chili. 

Hog, Swine, Pecari. ZAINO. Scuna Ac. 

Sis-ino Japan, Cltinia Ausonian, Saina Russian, 
Zayos Pelagic, Zannn Oscan, Smia/Ligurian, Muaca, 
Charcu Celtic, Taguazen Guanch, Tayasu Guara- 
ni, Sayoncs Calamari, Nigda Mbaya. 

His, her, He, she. LI. 
Hill. HUIBO D. Carive Laet, see moun 


Hollow, hole, YARA. Yari, Yaru. Coat- 
ris. Trou, Creux French. 

Hut. BOHARQUE M. Cartel G. Tuhono- 
ko Ey. See House. 

Insect. See Little. 

Island, CAYA, Caic, Caiz, Caiques. All 
see Earth and Land. 

Infinite, RAPITA, Apito, Virita R. D. O. 
title of God with Guaca holy. Analogies 
with Rapid and Veritas Latin. 

Invisible, GTJIMAZOA, Zuimaco, Quina- 
zona R. D. O. other title of God, com 
pound words, perhaps of different import : 
with many affinities in divine names of 
Lybia, &c. 

In, Within, Inside. Hiqui in Cuba Laet. 
Nacan C. 

Indigo, DIGO R. 

Is, it is, this is. ZI primitive Ze in Mo 
saic and Oriental Languages. He is, she 
is, EL or eit, see Grammar. 

King. CAZIC A. Cacique, Caciqui, Cax- 
icus, Casiche Various spellings. See the 

Knowledge, to know. GUAROCO, D. 
Char Aramic, Imparar Italic, Rasaca 

Life. Bi G. Primitive. I Oriental L. 
Vita Italic, Bios Greek, Vie French. 

Lizard. GUANA. Iguana A. Yuanas 
Her, Aguana Guinea, lagandu Congo, 
Atliaguan Pelagic, Manatha Aramic, Gu- 

ha Singala, luganas Cumana, Leguan 



Labor. BORIA. 

Laborer, Vassal, Servant. NABOR, Ana- 
boria, Naboritis. See Annals. 

Little, Small, Nothing, Insect. NIGUA. 
Nianti Ey. 

Nigu, niya Sicily, Niente Italic, Ngai Birman, Naga 

Hindi, Ngni Newar. Guti Bask, Miuizi Gothic, 

Piqua Peru, Ckigua Darien, Nechet Adaiz, Enchique 

Land. See Earth. 

Lord. See Noble. 

Light, Shining. TUREIGNA D. See Hea 

Lake, HAGTJAI. See Water. 

Man, men, male, husband, people. HITO 
GUAM, CARI R. Magua G. 3 roots IT, 
RI, AN, connected all over the world : IT 
found in 

Iota Old Gothic, Itua Polynesia, Toy Old Egypt, 
Hitnos Pelagic, Hita Sanscrit, Ati Zend, Itga Nu 
bian, Hetus Ausonian, Het Talahet, Dito Kavvi, Fito 
Japan, Tvhihuit Cumanche, &c. 

RI in Ria Congo, Vir Latin, Hari Tombuctu, Ira 
Fambu, Er Turk, JHf Celtic and Haikan, Yeri Hun 
garian, Ari Peruvian, Nieri lllyrian, Vair Gothic, 
Viro Timtiacan, // Oscan, &c. 

AN in Nan, Yang, Chinese D. Ani Anam, Gens 
Latin, Han Mbaya, Huinac Tzendal, Aner Greek, 

Oraug Malay, Guau Gaunch, Hua Apalachi, Hu- 

entu Chili, Guana Guanas, &c. 

Mother. MAMA D. Primitive word, 

found in 500 Languages ; identic or nearly 
so in all the Sanscrit and European Lan 
guages, the Atlantic Dialects, Bask and 
Manchu, Egypt and Tartary, Thibet and 
Polynesia; changed to Mu in Chinese; 
Am, Om in-Arabic Languages In Ame- 


rica quite common also, least changed in 
Hama Shebaoy, Amani, Adaiz, Ma Mo- 
bima, Mama Betoy, Omagua and Peru. 

Moon. MAROYO R. Marohus O. Mona, 
Kati in Eyeri. See the Annals. 

Much, Many. TOCIIETAD. Tucho Ibe 
rian, Chuanti Ausonian, Chehel Persian, 

Totus Latin. Tacha Achagua, Mioch 

Mexican, Tobu Brazilian. 

Mammeafruit. MAMEY D. 

Millet. PANYCKE D Panicum Latin. 

Mountain or hill, highlands, rough coun 
try. TIHUI. Huibo, Baino, Bilbao, Hay- 

Mtay Carthul, Oiten Lusitanian, Hauteur (pr hotoer) 
French, Tith Pelagic, Buno, Romaic, Gulbo Araraic, 

Tohu Copt, Uibui Galibi, Caquihuin Totonac-fv, 

Titi Collas of Peru, Ehuata Omagua, Vata Tarasoa, 
Hatez Chontal, Guetia Mbaya, &c. 

Music, Noise. HABAO, Giahuba. 

Hapan Pelagic, Hubub Celtic, Euba Congo, Bhatai 

Bali, Behan Turan and Khorazan. Paypa Peru, 

frhbal Huazteca, Tupan Guarani. 

Me, I, my, mine, myself NI, N , MI, 
M . Primitive, found in all the European 
and Asiatic Languages more or less devia 

Ni, Mich Bask, Ani Aramic, Mina Negro Langs, 

Nio Japan, Ne, Me Mexican Languages, Na Apa- 

lachi, Ni, Mi Linapi Dial, Hi Tarasca, Jlni Pimas 
Muscolgi, Nia Cora, Mio Dacota, Gane, Kuno Japan. 

Metal, hard. NIN. Guanin C. Hobin 

D. Irania Sanscrit, Vina Jolof, Pa- 

nilgue (Iron) Chili. 

Manati, Sea-Cow. MANATI A. Laman- 
tin French, Mamatino Sicilian. 



Mosquito. JEJEN D. Zinzara Toscan. 

Mushroom. YEGAN. Guayegan R Fu 
ngus, Agaricus Latin, Mycos Greek, Gu- 
arib Slavic, Guaygrion Celtic, and Old 

Meadow. ZAVANA. Zabana A. See 

Master, Lord. GUAMA. See Prince. 

Mantle. YAGUAS. Her. See Dress. 

Moving. MANA. See Grammar 

Manioc. BONIATA O, is the mild kind, 
Yuco D. 

Mahogany. MAHOGANI H. Cahoba. 

Mangrove tree. MANGLE H. 

Noble, good, fine, handsome, lord, chief. 
TAINO A. Mato Her, Nitaino, Mitaino 

Thano Oscan, Tona Japan, Hainac, Theano, Tuyano 
Pelagian, Turanos Greek, Zain Turk, Atueyn Birman, 
No (fine) Greek, Ethauo Singala, Tayon Kamchatka, 
Talen Iberian, Ona (good) Bask, Sitino Old Arabic ; 

Tonos. Taminas Scythian, Maitai Polynesia, To- 

ani Mexican, Tzalleine Huazteca, Votan Chontal, 
Noen Mocobi, Nin Abipon, Hitana Apalachi. 

No, Not, Nothing, Bad. MAYANA, MACA 

Eyni Mozabi, Lybian ; Nani Romanic, May Dorian, 
Niani Ausonian, Niente Italian, Ima Tahiti, Mabi 

Birman, Jin Copt, Jlma Othorni, Isana Cado, Ni- 

tio Guarani, Mayan Puncays ; Ma, Matar Maya, 
Mana Peru, Mnni Poconchi. 

^ Nuts. Zibayos D Derived from Ziba 

Now, To-day. Di. See Grammar. 
Adesso Oggidi Italian. 

One, first, alone, unique, ATA, ATU R, 


D. Primitive, found in 200 Languages. 

Bat Bask, Yat Kong Chinese, Atus Oscan, Ada Ara- 
mic, Ath Egypt, Ala Pelagic, Tahi Polynesia, Tah 
Gaman Atr, Auto Greek, Yat Shilo Atlantic, Suat 
Sumatra. Ata Muyzcas, Hatun Peru, Mato Pi- 
mas, Ata Innuit, Aguit Vilela, Carata Sapibo, Nacut 
Micniac, Scatta Onondago. 

Old, oldman. UA, BOH. Beh, Bolrito, 
Bohique A. See Priest. Holbo Copt, 

Bial Huazteca, &c. Very old Uaua 

as in Mexican. 

Oldest, Eldest. NENECHIN, R. Aine 

Onion, Bulb, CABAICOS R. Macoanes 

Cepa Latin, Ceba Tonga T si. Kipo Nepal, Cipola Ital 
ian, Cipuda Sicilian, Zaibel German, Bacang, Bawang 
Malay and Javan. 

Omnipotent. LIELLA R. Siela. Title of 
God, analogies with EL, and Ciel Heaven 
in French, pr. Siel. 

Opossum. TON A R. 

Ocymum. ZOCIIEN R. 

Paddle, Oar. PAGAYA, Pages, Nae D. 
Pain (boat) Tahiti, Nae is the root of 
boat in all Oriental and Pelagic Langua 

Pheasant. Babiayas Her. Cuba. Pha- 
sianus Latin. 

Palace. CANEI H. See House. 

Peace, repose, rest, quiet. TOCA D. 
Sata Lybian, Netuc Tozi old Arabic, Cu- 
eto Sicilian, Paca Aussonian, Thegi Scand. 

Pepper, pungent, sharp, strong taste. 
Axi, AJI. Ages A. Ac is a primitive 
word for sharp. Ac, ag Celtic, Acutus La 
tin, Oxus Greek, Axi Cumana. 


Priest. BOHITO. Bautio, Buhui, Bohi- 
que, Behique. Boition, Bouiti, Buutio, 
Boyeto, &c., by different writers, and in 
Dialects. See the Annals and Notes. 

Pontif, High-priest. BUHUI-TIHU A. See 

Part or Share. See Apart. 

Pipe, Tube. TOBACO D. Tubus Latin, 
Sipos Greek, Hukah Hindi, Chibuc Turk, 
Bacana Carib. 

Purple. RAGUI. Anigua D. Uarg Cel 
tic, Banicos, Iberian. 

Patatos. BATATAS. The same in South 

Place. GUARA R. 

People, men. CHIVI, IBAR D. Cabrcs 
Eyeri. See Man. 

Parrot. PARACA. Maca Cuba and Aru- 

Psidium pyriferum. Guava pear. Guay- 
ava, Guaxaba D. 

Pimento. PIMENTO. Pimienta Maya. 

Poke. CUCATO. Xucato. Pocan Pow- 
hatan, Coacum Mohigan, Cuechiliz Mexi 

Plain. MAGUA, See Field. 

Palm. YAGUA O. Caico Eyeri. 

Paradise. COAIBAI R. Her. See Hea 

Physician. Bom G. See Priest. 

Parsnep. GuaierosD. 

Plumbtree, Myrobolan. XoBosR. Plumbs 
Hicaco H. Cainito D. 

Prince, Lord. GUAMA D. 

Tequeni-gua,, Gua-miniqui Her, Hamon afr Atlantes, 


Sawah Lybian, Lncumon Etruscan, Vimala S&nscrit, 
Jllagi&ter Lat. Mana, 3Ienuk, Zend and Old Sanser, 
Hamun I r^n,Bvyama Old Arabic Teqitanes Mexican. 
Tuiuametin Tarasca, Tequrncs Muyzcas, Inquathil 
Huazt*>ca, Amo Choco, Ahnn Maya, &c. 

Raft. BALZA A. Balza, Balca Italian 
D. Balagan Malay. 

Root, Yam. NIAMES. Ames, S fames. 

Ima Molucas, Land Macasar, Nutd Copt, Boniam 

Celtic, Boan Persian, Niami African L. Nanat 

Cora, Momatos Calarnari. 

Rabbits. AGTJTI, Aguchi, Huti, Utia, 
Cuti A. R. Peculiar Genus Cama like 
Rabbits, 4 kinds in Ha) ti, says Laet. 
Hutia Largest ; Chemi, Coin, Mohuy, 
Smallest. Cama and Pucarara in Dia 
lects E. Quinaxes E. Cuba. 

Sarayuchi Egypt, Guniyu Sicilian, Cvnic.ulus Latin, 

Lag otis Greek, Ciiyes ; Quito, Coy Huazteca, Cuya 

Peru, Gurus Tayronas, Quinazis Cauca. 

Red. Ris. Diaz, ACHIOTO Her. Bay or 
Scarlet-red. Pu, Bu. 

Giria Bask, Kir is Arab, Rthita Sanscrit, Rosso Ital 
ian, Riibus, Badius, I uniceus Latin, Phoenix, Erythroa 
Greek, Bai Eoypt, Bui,ra .V aroco, rbho Thibet. 

Rich, Wealth, Wealthy, Treasure. Du- 
CHI M. Duhos G. Duyhzi D 

Divitia Latin, Guhya Sanscrit, Duhut Hindi, 

Dites Daiien, Ciirca Quiche. 

Rattle, Holy music. MARACA. 

Amara Bali, Raya Pelagic. Quaqua Huazteca, 

Amaraca Tupi Brazil, Tamaraca Aruac and Anzcrma, 
Malaca Apalachi. 

Retreat. TIBA. Tlibe Moses, Tiba Thi 
bet, T/ieba Egypt. &c. 

Remora fish. RE^IORA G. Reveo H. 
Rambos Ac. Remor Pelagic. 

Rope. CABUYA G. Cable, Cord, Eng 
lish, French, Italian. 

River. See Stream. 


Rites, worship, reality. REITI. Ritus 
Latin &c. 

Sea, Ocean. BAGUA V. Balahua Ey. 
Evident analogy with Agua, Aqua, (wa 
ter) in Spanish and Italian. 

Talahua Mogol, ftalua, Pela Pelagic, Va Sanscrit, 
M Persian, Baa Sussu of Afr, Panyui Tarahum, Ca- 
gua Saliva, Gna Tupi. 

Star, Bright. STAREI D. Primitive, 

found from England to India. 

Wisterias Greek, Aster Pelagic, Sial Osset, Taroth 
Aramic, Tar a Hindi, Star a Sanscrit, Izeran, Yethra 

African Atlantic, Izara 13ask, Sitarah Persian. 

Sirica G alibi, Tamanac and Otomaca, Chirica Yaoy, 
Silica Betoy, Ergrcti Abipon, Stan Aleutian, Setere 

Sword, Club, Weapon. MAC AN A A. Ma- 
chana O. 

Mukenai Dorian, Makaira Greek, Magal Aramic, 
Magvila Bask, Maco (spear) Gaunch, May ado (club) 

Do. Mazza Italian. Mace Old English, Macana 

Darien, and many other languages or South America. 
Macahui \\ exi can . 

Stream, River, Flood, NIQUEN. Neguin 
D. Ziniquin, Culien, Agua in Cuba. 

Dhuni Scanscrit, Dunic Osset, Dejiamen Guanch, 
Chuen Chinese, Cuemen Celtic, Hnnica Kay an Turan, 
Naltuen Pehlvi, Jlmnica Ausonian, Nukil Afgan, 
Binanga Bugi, Annigan Scand, Jinnegar (to drown^) 
Italian, Nikji, Kldan Lezjjhi, ]\ihar, Toba Old Ara 
bic. Wuinic Arnac, J\ecua Yarura, Cuyk Aleu 
tian, Nidachi Cado, Uchi Chacta. 

Storm, Hurricane, Fury. FURACANE D. 
Huracanes G. Urogan Ey. Derived from 
rage and fury of elements, primitive roots. 

Rages Soar ah, (rage and storm) Aramic, ftacas 
Toba Arabic, Taravat African Negros, Burasca Ital 
ian, Oraye French, Hvrlig Saxon, &c. 

Kachi in Eyeri. See King. 


Setting Sun, the West. SORAYA. See 

Surya Sanscrit, Soir evening in French, Sera in Ital 
ian, Vesper, Hesper, Pelagic, Spera iJomaic. 

Song, see Dance. Soul, see Heart. 

Small, see Little. 

Son, EL. Sons, ILL See Annals. Ra- 
bu, in Eyeri. See Grammar. 

Stone, Rock. ZIBA A. See the Annals. 
Rocky Zibao. 

Such. GUA. Demonstrative article much 
employed, found in many old languages. 
Ath Aramic, Arabic, Hebrew, Egyptian, 
&/c. (jfiici in South America. 

Shell. GUEY C. COHOB O. 

Strong. CARIB, AGI A. See Pepper. 


Stranger. CHAPETONAC. Guachinango 
Diaz in Cuba. 

Soup, Boiled. CALALTJ. Bollito It. Olla 

Snake. BOBA in Boriquen. Boa Afri 
can L., Ob Oriental L., Coluber Latin, 

Ophis Greek. Coa Mexican, Boya Gu- 


The, English indicative article I, HI, HIN, 
ZI, NI, LI. Primitive, variable in Dia 
lects, root I, same as I Italian, IL, L do. 
Y", Ye Old English, I Persian and Lybian, 
\n Celtic, Y Old Arabic, Ni, N> Illyrian, 

Old Havay, TI Cora, TL Mexican, 

Ini Pimal, Ni Lapani D., Nuya Achagua, 
lu Payuri. See Grammar. 

This, that, these, those. GUA, same as 
such. See Grammar. 


Thou, thy, thine. TI, TE. Primitive 
from Celtic to Sanscrit. Tx, te, toi, tien 
Greek and Illiryan, nearly similar in Bask, 
Gothic, Pelagic, Latin, Italian, Persian, 
Magyar, &c. 

Take. CHUG C. Chugue Her. Busca 

Italian, Aku Lampung of Sumatra. 

Huyca Huazteca, Uhca Tarasca. 

Tomato. TOMATES G. 

Temple. See Church. 

Tree. See Wood. 

Town, habitation. BOIIIO, same as house 

~Bakus, Pagus, Urbis Italic L., Paese, Pays, Payz 
Modern L., C/ioyo Greek D., Bajeth Aramic, Huebo 
Iberian, Bohus Pelagic, Bya Scand, &c. 

Thread. Hico D. Hilo Oscan, Trico 
Greek, Hagu Nepal Hito, Pito Ma 

Tobacco, COHIBA O. COGIOBA R. Co- 
hoba D. DoJekan Arabic, Tuhica Nuba, 

Turtle. ICOTA G. ICOTEA H. Cabini D. 

Chucua, Icuma Sanscrit, Boco Bali. 

Cotos Cumana. 

Two, or Second. BEM? Bi Bask, Bi- 
nus Latin, Ambi Italian. 

Three, or Third. ABEM ? 

Tame, Mild. MATUM D. Boniatum O. 
Bonus Latin. 

Throne. DUCHI M. 

Vine, Creeper. BEJUCO D. Bixuco, 
Bexucum O., Bochuco M. Grape-vine. 
UVERIU. Uyeros M. Uva Italian, Viniera 
Catalan, Zibi Arabic, Ivy (pr Aivi) English* 

Vassal. See Laborer. 


Water. AMA. BAGTJA. 

Primitive. Ma Atlantes and Lybian, Jlman Modern 
Atlantes, demon Gaunch, Mohu Copt, Nam Siam, 
Maim Arabic, Balua Pelagic, Oman Old Arabic, 
Ameh Affadeh Negros, Maza Congo, Kama Corana, 
Asma Romaic, Agua Spanish, Aigo Komanic, Lagus, 

Lacus (lake) Latin and Celtic. May, iWayu, Peru, 

Nhama Puris, Amuk, Ahua Tzuluki, lia Chontal, Ma 
ya, A Mexican, Agua Veras:ua, Ak Atakapus, Haya 
Shebay, Aya Fatura, Ahay Kslen, &c. 

Woman, Wife. INUYA. HITA. ITI. BIBI 
Inara, Liani, Clmron, Ey. 

Several roots, Iti same as Hito man, Bibi is wife D. 
Gyna Greek, Guine Old French, Nurin Desatir and 
Hindi, Cunica, Enaztia, Toy a Bask D., lona Pela 
gic, Zaita (girl) Bask, Zitta (bride) Sicilian, Tanaya 
Tedla Atlantic, Yuri, JVm Chinese Dialects, Ita, Itua 
Oscan, Gin Haikan, Gina Australia, Cuinta Congo, 
Nuriu Hindi, Mac/tint Polynesia; Ana, Biana Oscan, 
Puta Venitian, Heana Beana Celtic, Zilella (girl) 
Italian, Nurani Pehlvi, S/tiii d Copt, Wanito Kawi, 
Uxor (wife) Latin, Boba, Chura Slavic Bui gar, Biby 
Malabar, Muchn Iran, Keion (girl) Dorian Greek, 

Koriza Romanic, &c. Uita Cora, Zitua Mexican, 

Nua.titu Saliva, Esena Moxas, Tigny Muyzcas, Tinio 
Maypuri, Yate Mocobi, Nikib Atakapus, Zina (girl) 
Otlmmi, Wanita Uchi, Iras Cumana, Ira Coyba, Nia 

White. YUCA, LUCA A. 

Leucas Greek, CaTuran, Casis Scythian, Chnna Bask 

JHuca Le/ghi, Abask, Luza Chacta, Elu 

Galibi, Lapaca Mbaya, Zaco Totonaca, Luc Chili, Yu- 
rac Peru, Hacaya Cado, Usca Ozage, Yutaga Moco- 
bi. 2c Maya. 

Wood or Tree. MACA, MAPU A. BUTOS 
Ac. Maica Chimala Dialects.-i 

Klia Circaz, Micha Abask, Khad Osset, Taimala 
Lezghi, Makia Oscan, (yet forest in Toscan,) Gas 

Hindi, Gatz Pehlvi, Aguz Tartar, Cayu Malay, 

Ca Omagua and Guarani, Caa Mbaya, Kag Atnka- 
pns, Canch "Marh^z, ATirr i 


&c. [Butos is like Bois (bua) French, Wood (Vud) 

War, Army. GUAZAVARA G. Huctu Ey. 
Warrior. VARA. Root same as in Eng 
lish and Gothic, Guerra Italian. &c. 

Wanderer. UMAKUA Ey. Omuvagu Si 

Wind or Air. BANZEX D. Primitive, 

Baud Old Arabic, >Bao Hindu, Bad Persian, Ban Ru- 
yaga, Jlndai Oscan, Nabhn Sanscrit, Bentus Ausonian, 
Batia Kawi, Hanem Pelagic, Jlhklia Abask, Ehe- 
ca Mexican, Jlcate Cora , Pvco Cbetimacha, c. 

West. SORAIA R. Warab Old Arabic, 
Varapa, Saraya Sanscrit, Urop Pelagic, 
Hesper Greek, Vesper Latin, Ural Bugis. 
Sor Aramic. See Setting Sun. 

World. UUEYA, OCON R. D. On Ori 
ental Root, Xton Greek, Queya from Quis- 
caya whole earth. 

Which, HIQUI Laet. Qui French, 11- 
quale Italian, Cui Sicilian. 

Worms. Cusi. Piojo in Jamaica. 

Cus Lybian, J3aco Toscan, Pioc (vermin) 

Yes. HA. Primitive. Ha Lezghi, Ya 
Gothic and Lamut, Do Ostiac, Aham 
Arabic, Am Haikan, A Timani and Bu- 
lam Africa, Uaa Jolof, Yaga Congo, Ay 

English, Hea African Atlantes, Haha 

Apalachi, Aa Aleutian, Haa Otomaco, 
Othomi and Cumanchi, Ya Totonac and 
Puris, May Chili, Oyah Ozage, Ahi Cado, 
Yasay Aruac. 

Yellow. HOBAS. Majob Lezghi, Lobi- 
dus Ausonian, Bahenda Biaju of Borneo, 


Aubain (Oben) Old French, Hoang Chi 

Yuca gloriosa. YUCA E. same in Mexi 
co, meaning bright, white. 


C. Cuba, by Herrera, Diaz, Columbus, 
Acosta, Laet, Munoz, &c. 

J. Jamaica, by Columbus, Garcia, Go- 
mara, &c. 

L. Lucayas, by Columbus, Acosta, Ovi- 
edo, &c. 

Land or Country, Katos, L. Xai J. JVa- 
can, Guaca, C. 

Island, Caya, L Cayo, C Caic J. 

Stranger, Guachinango, C, 

House, Bohio, C. 

Remora, Reves, C. 

Partridge, Lizas, C. by Ocampo. 

Pheasant, Babiayas, C. 

Parrot, Maxa C. Macan, J. 

Prince, Lord, Guami, C. 

Rabbits, Usias, Hutic, Quinaxes C. 
Hutia L. 

Opuntia, Tuna C. 

Cacao, Cacao C. 

Priest, Behique, Bohique C. L. 

River, Agua C. 

Corn, Maysi, C. 

Bread, Zabi, C. 

God, Yocahuna, Guama-coti, Guama- 
oxocoti, C. 

Supreme being, Attabex, C. 




Ghost, Dupi, J. 

Life, Bi, C. L. 

Fountain, Mini, C. L. 

Wood, Maica, J. 

Cedar, Cauvana, C. 

Dog, Alco, C. 

Alligator, Cayaman, C. 

Poke, Cucato, J. 

Fire-fly, Locuyos, C. Zievas, L. 

Noble, 70, Ttfato, C. 

Shell, Cohobas, C. 

Guayac, Guacum, C. 

Red, Jfo s, C. 

White Worm, Cwsi", J. 

Palm Worm, Piojo, J. 

King. Caxicus, C. 

Within, Hiqui, Nacan, C. 

Gold, Nucay, C. L. Columbus. 

Yams, Mames, C. 

Grape Vine, Uveros, C. 


B. Boriquen, by Herrera, Acosta,&c. 

E. Dialect of the Women of Carib, quite 
different from Carib, by Rochefort, &,c. 

Land, Island, Kati, E. Ca, Ay, B. 

God, locana, Guama-nomocon^ B. 

Noble, Ditayno, B. 

Snake, Boba, B. 

Cloudy, Furzidi, B. 

Mahogany, Maga, B. 

Poison Apple, Manzanila, B. 

Cotton Tree, Zeyba, B. 
- Violet, Quibey, B. 



Bananas, Camois, E. 

Coco, Coquillas, B. 

Guayac, Guage, B. 

Hog, Sairie, B. 

Boat, Piraguas, B. 

Wood, Tree, Bow, Chimala, E. 

Angel, Chemin, Angels, Chemignum, E. 

Spirits, Opoyem, E. 

Moon, Mona, Kati, E. 

Storm, Urogan, E. 

Blood, Moinalu, E. 

Heaven or above, Ubec, E. 

Bread, Maru, E. 

Boat, Canoa, Pages, E. 

Man, Eyeri, Men, Eyerium, E, 

Woman, Inaru, Women, Inuyum, E. 

Foe, Akani, EJ 

Little, Nianti, E. 

House, Hut, Tuhonoco, E. 

<Jarden, CAK, JE, 

War, Nihuctu, E. 

Mother, !?&, Nucu-churon, E. 

Father, Baba, Nucu-chili, E. 

Grandfather, Narguti, E. 

Wife, Liani, E. 

Son, Rabu, E. 

Daughter, Rahen, E. 

Heart, Nanichi, E. 
Vassal, Labuyu, E. 
Sea, Balana, E. 
Bed, Nekera, E. 
Sun, Kachi, Cochi, E. 
Money, Agucat. 


Palm, Caico. 

Red, Pu, E. 

People, Ibas, B. Cabres, E. 

Priest, Boyez, E. 

Wanderer, Umckua, E. 

Devil, Mabuya, E. 

ISLAND, 1594. 

This Dialect of the ARUAC is the nearest 
geographicaly to the Eyeri, and yet very 
different ; nearer in words to the Aruac of 
the Continent. Therefore the Aruac and 
Taino altho belonging to the same group, 
are distinct Languages, and the two people 
had been separated for ages. 

Dudley collected in 1594, about 55 words 
of it, which are in Purchas, yet have been 
neglected by all the Philologists, Out of 
these 27 are in my Taino List, and offer 
16 affinities, equal to 56 per cent. The re 
mainder 27, lack there and cannot be com 
pared ; but afford a kind of supplement to it* 


Man, Guttemock. 
Woman, Hiaru. 
Heaven, Huihua. 
Gold, CalcoarL 
Maize, Mauris* 
Pipe, Bayu. 
Shell, Tibetibe. 
Water, Bara, Oronuy. 
Sun, Hadali. 
Moon, Katti. 
Bread, Callit. 


Fire, HicJcet. 
Eyes, Cost, Scrath. 
Boat, Canoa, Canosin. 
Stone, Sibath. 
Head, Cabbo. 


Copper, Arara. 
Metal, Iron, Mointiman. 
Emerald, Taarao. 
Sword, Caspar a. 
This, My, Da, D. 
Parrot, Wahowa. 
Tree, Mentini. 
Potato, Halete. 
Batatas, Caenuda. 
Knife, Yedola. 
Basket, Queca. 
Tobacco, Hurreit. 


Hand, Can. 
Feet, CuttL 
Knees, Cude. 
Toes, Boda. 
Hair, Bairo, Barah. 
Bow, Marahabo. 
Arrow, Semaro. 
Spoon, Heldaro. 
Silver, Perot a. 
Forehead, DessL 
Tongue, Dill. 
Ears, Dudica. 
Lips, Desire. 
Teeth, Arehe. 
Monkey, Howa, 


Chest, Bodad. 

Well, Sakd. 

Bracelet, Techir. 

Scissors, Arkeano. 

Comb, Baruda. 

Mouth, Lacoak. 

Bell, Toletilero. 

Stick, Adoth. 

Beach, Barenaine. 

Flying fish, Bohery. 

Tunny fish, Uassa. 

I dont know, Nonquo, Nonquapa. 


As early as 1519, Pigafetta collected a 
dozen words of the Brazilian Language; 
which are quite different from the Tupi , 
but very akin to the Haytian. Altho he 
does not name the tribe he visited, they 
must have been Araguas, who are thus 
traced to the Aruac Stock. This great na 
tion was still further extended; since the 
Patagons or Tinguis, the Chiquitos or 
Taos, and perhaps the Charruas belonged 
to it, as I shall show elsewhere. Meantime 
adding some words from Cabot & Vespucci, 
we have 17 Araguas words, whereof 14 are 
comparable with the Haytian, offering 10 
affinities, which gives 72 per cent of mutual 
analogy, much more than with the Cairi. 


House, Boi, Bohio, by Cabot. 
Corn, Maiz. 
Rattle, Hanmaraca. 
Boat, Canoe. 


Sword, Macana, Cabot. 

King, Cachic, (written CacicK) Italian 

Good, Turn. 

Bed, Hamac. 

Big-land, Taquino, by Vespuci, name of 


Knife, Tarse. 
Bananas, Pacaras. 
Pear, Caxus, by Cabot. 
Meal or Cassave, Hui. 


Hook, Pinda. 
Scissors, Pirame. 
Comb, Chipag. 



Preface, Page 3 

Chapter I. General Introduction, 13 

Ch. II. Materials, 35 

Ch. III. Cataclysms and floods, 76 

Notes, 98 

Ch. IV. General View, - 101 

Notes, 117 

Ch. V. Linapi annals from the creation 

to 1820, 121 

Notes, 149 

Ch. VI. Haytian annals, - 162 

Theogony and Cosmogony, 166 

Antidiluvian History, 173 

Ancient History, - 176 

Notes, 204 

Ch. VII. Haj tian Language restored, 215 
Comparative Vocabularies, 230 

Dialects, - - 253 




RETURN TO the circulation desk of any 
University of California Library 

or to the 

Bldg.400, Richmond Field Station 
University of California 
Richmond, CA 94804-4698 


2-month loans may be renewed by calling 

1-year loans may be recharged by bringing 
books to NRLF 

Renewals and recharges may be made 4 
days prior to due date. 


JUL 2 1 1998 

DEC 2 2003 


VB 20594